Battlefield terrain and engineering geology in the eastern Chorwon Valley, central Korean Peninsula
C.P. Cameron, 2001. "Battlefield terrain and engineering geology in the eastern Chorwon Valley, central Korean Peninsula", The Environmental Legacy of Military Operations, Judy Ehlen, Russell S. Harmon
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The terrain of the eastern Chorwon Valley is geologically complex, controlled by spatial relationships between Precambrian metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic granite, and locally intense structural deformations within and adjacent to major faults. Fundamental controls of terrain are overprinted by cycles of deep weathering and erosion during Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations, as well as by accelerated human impacts during the twentieth century. Geological characterization, terrain analysis, and Korean War history here provide significant lessons in the use of battlefield terrain.
Military access, mobility, and the orientation of attack corridors in this area are predominantly a function of major tectonic faults, and (to a lesser extent) lithology. Severely tectonized granite rock mass extends outward for 300 m to 2 km from major fault zones. Erosion of highly weathered granite in some of these zones forms elongate valleys. The easily-ripped saprolite by-products of granite weathering provide in situ construction materials (sand and gravel), soft foundations prone to boggy conditions in some areas, reasonable groundwater supplies near the fault zones, and an overall situation suitable for staging and military infrastructure. Resistant Precambrian metamorphic rocks form rugged terrain suitable for defensive positions. These hard lithologics support steep ridges and towering hills in and around the eastern Chorwon Valley in the Kumhwa vicinity. The (often) strongly magnetic character of some of the metamorphic rocks complicates the location of mines and unexploded ordnance in this sector of the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
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The Environmental Legacy of Military Operations
Military geology comprises research and practical efforts directed toward providing geological input for military construction, civil works projects (e.g., dams, navigable waterway maintenance), remediation of polluted military facilities, terrain analysis, sustainability of training lands, mobility prediction, and site characterization activities. Land use sustainability issues, base closures, and heightened levels of environmental awareness by the general public have introduced new challenges for using, maintaining, cleaning, and restoring lands that have served as military installations for decades. In this volume, the legacy of military operations and their impact on the terrain and geology, particularly from an environmental viewpoint, are considered by geologists of diverse lands and backgrounds. This book, a companion volume to Military Geology in War and Peace (Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 13, 1998), emphasizes current research and applications of engineering geology principles and practice to modern day military problems, many of which are environmental in nature.