Field guide for the historical mining site of Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, east-central Mexico
Alejandro Carrillo-Chávez, Gilles Levresse, Juventino Martínez Reyes, 2012. "Field guide for the historical mining site of Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, east-central Mexico", The Southern Cordillera and Beyond, José Jorge Aranda-Gómez, Gustavo Tolson, Roberto S. Molina-Garza
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Silver and gold mineralization was discovered in the late 1600s in the epithermal sulfide-rich veins of Mineral de Pozos Mining District, northeast Guanajuato state, Mexico. The main exploitation period of this mining district was between 1888 and 1922, with sporadic activities until 1942. Exploitation of the deposit is estimated at 1,200,000 tons of ore with average of 202 g/ton silver, and 11.83 g/ton Au. Mineral waste materials (more than 1 million tons) are scattered along the area on the main creeks and in the ancient processing plants (Haciendas de Beneficio). In this field guide, we present brief descriptions of the mineralization, the geology of the area, some of the ancient processing plants, and the potential dispersion of metals derived from the mine tailings into the environment (soil, sediments, and groundwater). Despite the relatively high concentrations of As and Pb in groundwater (0.011–0.090 mg/l As and 0.025–0.035 mg/l Pb), we consider that these values represent natural background values rather than contamination derived from anthropogenic input. However, we consider that Zn is the only metal potentially derived from mining activities being released to the environment. The historical processing plants offer a very interesting perspective of the more than a century old mining activities.
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The Southern Cordillera and Beyond
Prepared in conjunction with the 2012 GSA Cordilleran Section Meeting, Querétaro, Mexico, this volume's eight field guides showcase three aspects of the geology of the southern end of the North America cordillera: Mid-Tertiary and Quaternary volcanology, environmental geology, and Mesozoic tectonics. Field Guide 25 explores the Cenozoic stratigraphy of Sierra de Guanajuato, one of the most important Mexican mining districts, and addresses a controversial topic, the accretion of the Guerrero terrane and its possible role in the Late Cretaceous—Early Tertiary orogeny. Three guides related to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, an active magmatic arc related to subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates, include new data about the recent volcanic history, physical volcanology, and volcanic hazards in Mexico's most densely populated area. Bringing the geosciences into societal problems, one guide presents data on ground deformation related to water extraction in urbanized areas of the Mexico City basin, and another explores the ghost town of the Mineral de Pozos mining district and the effect of mine tailings on groundwater.