Major submarine fans of the California continental rise
William R. Normark, Christina E. Gutmacher, 1989. "Major submarine fans of the California continental rise", The Eastern Pacific Ocean and Hawaii, E. L. Winterer, Donald M. Hussong, Robert W. Decker
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Between the Murray and Mendocino Fracture Zones off the central California margin, the bulk of the continental rise is formed by two major submarine fan deposits, the Monterey Fan to the south and the Delgada Fan to the north (Menard, 1955, 1960) (Fig. 1 and Plate IB). In between these large canyon-fan systems, several small submarine canyons, which dissect the continental slope between Monterey Bay and Pt. Arena, have formed a sloping ramp of sediment without pronounced fan shapes. South of the Monterey Fan, the much smaller Arguello Fan (just south of Fig. 1) is the only other distinctly fan-shaped turbidite system on the deep-sea floor (deposited on oceanic crust) between central California and the southernmost part of the Baja California peninsula.
Data in this chapter are largely drawn from recent review papers on the Monterey and Delgada Fans included in the COMFAN (Committee on Fans) compilation and comparison of turbidite depositional systems (Bouma and others, 1985). Little new data are available since the COMFAN summaries, and although the extensive GLORIA (Geologic Long Range Inclined ASDIC [side-scan sonar]) coverage over both these fans will shed light on morphologic features not adequately mapped to date (Field and others, 1984; McCulloch and others, 1984), these data will not be available in time for inclusion in this chapter. Herein, we focus on depositional processes and summarize earlier work on fan structure and history.
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This new synthesis includes a section on plate kinematics, documenting the basis for a new interpretation of the magnetic anomaly patterns. It also includes: six chapters on various aspects of tectonics, petrologic characteristics, and hydrothermal processes of active ridges from the Galapagos Rift to the Juan de Fuca Ridge; a section on mid-plate volcanism, including the Hawaii-Emperor chain; five chapters on various aspects of northeastern Pacific sedimentary regimes; and nine chapters on the geology of the Pacific continental margin from the Aleutians to Guatemala, seen from the perspective of marine geology. Three separate oversize plates illustrate the bathymetry of the northeast Pacific; two more on the same base show distribution of sediment samples and types and magnetic anomaly data and tectonic interpretations; and others include a synthesis of the geology and bathymetry of the Hawaiian Islands, details of bathymetry along parts of the East Pacific Rise, and a major seismic profile across the Pacific margin of Guatemala.