Energy resources of the Caribbean region
The Caribbean region comprises all of Central America, much of Colombia and Venezuela, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles, including their Atlantic shelves and slopes. Peripherally, it encompasses the YucatÃ¡n Peninsula, interior basins of Colombia and Venezuela, and the Bahamas and southern Florida. The Caribbean Sea constitutes almost half of the 8.5 million km2 area.
Petroleum is by far the principal energy resource of the region. Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Cuba, Guatemala, and Barbados produce petroleum commercially, but only the first three are self sufficient and net exporters. There is minor potential in the Bahamas, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and PanamÃ¡.
Commercial deposits of coal are known only in Colombia, Venezuela, and Costa Rica. Other resources, in order of utilization, are hydropower, geothermal, biomass, wind, and solar. There is minor potential for uranium-thorium deposits in Venezuela, Colombia, and Nuclear Central America. Ocean temperature gradients offer unlimited energy to islands, particularly those with near-shore deep water. A distant-future potential major resource is gas hydrates on the Pacific continental slopes of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and PanamÃ¡ and the continental borderlands of Colombia and Venezuela.