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Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonism on the Atlantic coastal margin

By
David C. Prowell
David C. Prowell
U.S. Geological Survey, Suite B, 6481 Peachtree Industrial Boulevard, Doraville, Georgia 30360
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Published:
January 01, 1988

Abstract

Regional tectonism on the Atlantic coastal margin is expressed in a variety of ways such as uplift, subsidence, tilting of the landmass, geomorphic features, seismicity, and faulting. Of these features, faulting probably is the most definitive evidence of crustal deformation. Major episodes of faulting such as the ductile shearing associated with dynamic metamorphism in the exposed Appalachians and rift faulting associated with the formation of early Mesozoic basins along the Atlantic seaboard have long been a part of the geologic knowledge. However, faulting related to more subtle events, such as the uplift of the Blue Ridge Mountains or post-rift downwarp of the Atlantic continental margin, has received far less attention even though it is an important element of modern geology. Prior to 1970, the eastern United States was generally considered devoid of faults of post-Jurassic age even though evidence of such faulting was available in the late 1800's. McGee (1888) and Darton (1891) recognized faults in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. that involved the juxtaposition of crystalline “basement” and Cretaceous or younger Coastal Plain strata. These observations and the local linearity of the inner margin of the Coastal Plain (Fall Line) lead them to postulate a tectonic control for the updip limit of sedimentation. Confirmation of widespread post-Jurassic tectonism, however, was not readily available and arguments favoring passive warping of the continental edge dominated geologic thought.

In the 1970's, the construction of nuclear power plants, large dams, and other large structures generated a need to understand Cenozoic tectonism and seismicity in eastern North America. The resulting studies of fault activity in the eastern United States provided evidence of many large, previously unrecognized, Cretaceous and Cenozoic fault zones. For example, Jacobeen (1972), Mixon and Newell (1977), Prowell and O’Connor (1978), Dis- chinger (1979), Reinhardt and others (1984), and Dischinger (in press) have described faults with vertical displacements of 30 to 76 m and mapped lengths as great as 100 km (Fig. 1).

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Contents

DNAG, Geology of North America

The Atlantic Continental Margin

Robert E. Sheridan
Robert E. Sheridan
Robert E. Sheridan Department of Geological Sciences Busch Campus Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903
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;
John A. Grow
John A. Grow
U.S. Geological Survey MS 960, Box 25046 Denver Federal Center Denver, Colorado 80225
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Geological Society of America
Volume
I-2
ISBN electronic:
9780813754581
Publication date:
January 01, 1988

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