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Book Chapter

A Survey of Geomorphic Processes in Canada

By
M.J. Bovis
M.J. Bovis
Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
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M.A. Carson
M.A. Carson
4533 Rithetwood DriveVictoria, B.C.V8X 4J5
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P.P. David
P.P. David
Department of GeologyUniversity of MontrealMontreal, QuebecH3C 3J7
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T.J. Day
T.J. Day
Water Survey of CanadaWater Resources BranchEnvironment CanadaOttawa, OntarioK1A 0E7
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P.A. Egginton
P.A. Egginton
Geological Survey of Canada601 Booth StreetOttawa, OntarioK1A 0E8
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S.G. Evans
S.G. Evans
Geological Survey of Canada601 Booth StreetOttawa, OntarioK1A 0E8
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D.C. Ford
D.C. Ford
Department of GeographyMcMaster UniversityHamilton, OntarioL8S 4K1
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H.M. French
H.M. French
Department of Geography and GeologyUniversity of OttawaOttawa, OntarioKIN 6N5
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J.A. Heginbottom
J.A. Heginbottom
Geological Survey of Canada601 Booth StreetOttawa, OntarioK1A 0E8
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K. Hewitt
K. Hewitt
Department of GeographyWilfred Laurier UniversityWaterloo, OntarioN2L 3C5
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R.A. Klassen
R.A. Klassen
Geological Survey of Canada601 Booth StreetOttawa, OntarioK1A 0E8
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H.O. Slaymaker
H.O. Slaymaker
Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
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M.W. Smith
M.W. Smith
Department of GeographyCarleton UniversityOttawa, OntarioK1S 5B6
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Published:
January 01, 1989

Abstract

Canada is a large northern country with a wide variety of landscapes. Most geomorphic processes are dominated by the special quality of northern climates, with great contrasts in temperature between seasons; large amounts of snow deposited annually and lying undisturbed for months; intensive frost action and widespread permafrost; and peculiar river regimes with a large spring freshet, extensive flooding, and considerable surplus energy for erosion and transportation of debris.

Regionally, the climate varies with latitude and distance from the oceans; the high, north-south alignment of the Cordillera controls air mass movements across the country and so influences the climate on a regional scale. The climate is markedly seasonal, and has undergone considerable change throughout geological time. Recent anthropogenic influences on climate may be affecting geomorphic processes.

Geological history and geomorphic processes control the landscape at local and regional scales. On a continental scale, geological structure and lithology are more significant. Topographic relief, the presence of permafrost, and the nature of soil and vegetation cover combine with geology to provide the details of the physiography of Canada, and the framework of the landscape of Canada.

Major geomorphic processes active in Canada today comprise slope processes, river processes, and cold climate processes.

The land surface of Canada is generally young and so has yet to attain permanent stability with respect to mass failures.

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Contents

DNAG, Geology of North America

Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland

R.J. Fulton
R.J. Fulton
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Geological Society of America
Volume
K1
ISBN electronic:
9780813754604
Publication date:
January 01, 1989

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