Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley
The Lower Mississippi Valley is a 780-km lowland in the south-central United States extending from near Cairo, Illinois, south to the Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 1). Valley width varies from about 40 to 200 km, and flood-plain elevations range from about 84 m at the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence to sea level where the deltaic plain meets the Gulf of Mexico. The lower Mississippi is North America’s largest river. Its chief tributaries are the upper Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Arkansas, Red, and Ouachita Rivers. The drainage basin encompasses over 3,200,000 km2, and average discharge to the Gulf of Mexico is approximately 12, 000 m3/s, with a recorded maximum and minimum of 56, 000 and 5, 600 m3/s.
The lower Mississippi Valley has developed since at least Cretaceous time in a terrain of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks as old as Precambrian. The sediment delivered to the delta is chiefly silt and clay. Cycles of delta growth and deterioration have affected the amount of sediment delivered to the chenier plain west of the delta by longshore drift.
Figures & Tables
Quaternary Nonglacial Geology
Includes 5 topical chapters covering paleoclimates, dating methods, volcanism, tephrochronology, and Pacific margin tephrochronologic correlation, and 15 chapters of regional synthesis covering: the Pacific margin; the Columbia Plateau; the Snake River Plain; the major pluvial lakes of the Great Basin; the Basin and Range in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; the Colorado Plateau; the Southern and Central Rocky Mountains; the Northern and Southern Great Plains, Osage Plains, and Interior Highlands; the Lower Mississippi Valley; the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and Florida; the Appalachian Highlands and Interior Low Plateaus; and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A large, full-color geologic map of the Quaternary deposits of the Lower Mississippi Valley, in addition to correlation charts, tables, and cross-sections relating to other chapters, is also included.