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Sediment Distribution in the Oceans: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge

By
Maurice Ewing
Maurice Ewing
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John I. Ewing
John I. Ewing
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Manik Talwani
Manik Talwani
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Published:
January 01, 1976

Abstract

Three crossings of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the seismic profiler between Buenos Aires and Capetown: Buenos Aires and Dakar; and Dakar and HaTTfax have shown several important features ot the sediment distribution. The total accumulation is remarkably small, averaging 100–200 m. On the northern and middle crossings, the sediments are mainly in pockets, and intervening areas fire almost or entirely bare. A large percentage ot the pockets have almost level surtaces. These facts suggest that the sediments deposited on the ridge flow easily after reaching bottom here. Where impounded, the ridge sediments apparently develop cohesiveness and will not allow easily it subsequently tilted. The sediments are unstratified and remarkably transparent acoustically. Certain areas, particularly on the lower flanks ot the ridge, contain distorted sedimentary bodies that apparently indicate postdepositional tectonic activity. The basement surface on which the sediments rest is unitormly rough trom the crust of the ridge out to the lower flanks and continues so underneath the basin sediments. It is the upper surface of the intermediate layer (seismic velocity about 5 km/sec) that constitutes the upper 1-3 km of the oceanic crust.

On the southern crossing the sediment layer tends toward uniform thickness across most of the section. This is-evidence that the ridge sediments here are mainly pelagic, and that the amount of sediment seen on the; record represents the total deposited.

Sediment tores and ocean-bottom photographs provide additional information about sediment composition and distribution where the sediment cover is too thin to be measured by the profiler. The photographs also prov ide information about the presence ot currents capable of altering sediment distribution.

The results suggest that the total accumulation in the oceans is small compared to that which would be inferred from any of the currently accepted estimates of-Cenozoic rates of deposition, but that the relative amounts of carbonate and red clay conform to the accepted ratio of their respective rates.

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GSA Microform Publications

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Peter A. Rona
Peter A. Rona
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories 15 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, Florida 33149
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Geological Society of America
Volume
5
ISBN electronic:
9780813759050
Publication date:
January 01, 1976

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