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The Great Lakes coast contains numerous unstable bluffs underlain by heterogeneous glacial materials consisting of till, sand, and gravel layers, and lacustrine clays. Many of the bluffs are steeper than their equilibrium angles and typically move as slow earth slides or occasional rapid slumps. Such movements develop largely where interlayered sand and clay contain perched groundwater that acts to reduce effective stress during winter months when perched potentiometric surface elevations rise because water cannot discharge through frozen soil. Aerial photograph records dating back to 1938 show that bluffs recede in amphitheater-like depressions followed by "catch up" where headlands between...

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