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Abstract

A Marcellus-Burket/Geneseo field trip in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge features both brittle and ductile structures. The degree to which these structures have developed depends on both lithology, which is a function of the stratigraphic architecture of the Devonian Appalachian Basin and position relative to the foreland during the Alleghanian Orogeny. Joints are best developed in the black shales and the units immediately above with the J2 joint set most prominent in the Brallier Formation just above the Burket/Geneseo Formation. Faults are seen in the form of cleavage duplexes and bedding-parallel slip accompanying flexural-slip folding. Cleavage duplexes are found in the Marcellus whereas bedding-parallel slip is more common in the overlying Mahantango Formation and further up the section in the Brallier Formation. Layer-parallel shortening decreases from greater than 50% to approximately 10% when crossing the Jacks Mountain–Berwick Anticline structural front from the hinterland portion to the foreland portion of the Valley and Ridge. Disjunctive cleavage, the primary mechanism for layer-parallel shortening, is best developed in carbonates whereas pencil cleavage is best developed in shales.

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