Early industrial geology of western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio: Early gristmills and iron furnaces west of the Alleghenies and their geologic contexts
Joseph T. Hannibal, Tammie L. Gerke, Mary K. McGuire, Harry M. Edenborn, Ann L. Holstein, David Parker, 2011. "Early industrial geology of western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio: Early gristmills and iron furnaces west of the Alleghenies and their geologic contexts", From the Shield to the Sea, Richard M. Ruffolo, Charles N. Ciampaglio
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Even before 1800, geological resources such as chert, iron, limestone, and coal were being utilized from the Pennsylvanian rocks of eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. These materials were of great interest to the early geologists of the region. This field trip discusses these products in the context of early grain milling, iron furnaces, and allied industries of Ohio and Pennsylvania in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, with a focus on two publicly accessible sites: McConnells Mill Park in western Pennsylvania, and Mill Creek Park in eastern Ohio. These parks contain publicly accessible gristmills and iron furnaces, and outcrops. We also provide new observations on cultural materials related to these industries, especially iron-furnace slag and millstones.
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From the Shield to the Sea
This volume features field guides and descriptions of eight of the geological field trips offered during the Joint Meeting of the Geological Society of America Northeastern and North-Central Sections held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in March 2011. From glaciers to gristmills, shales to slides, these timely and topical trips highlight the region's geology from eastern Ohio to the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge and show how it has shaped the region—topographically, structurally, historically, industrially, and evolutionarily.