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The Menderes Massif is a complex geological terrane. Despite much research progress in the past ten years, there are still substantial unresolved issues regarding its tectonic and meta-morphic history. Although we would like to outline some key controversies here, we recommend the review section in Bozkurt and Oberhänsli’s 2001 editorial article (Bozkurt and Oberhänsli, 2001) and van Hinsbergen et al. (2010) for an attempt to reconcile local structure with geodynamics. The pre-Miocene tectonics of the Menderes Massif have been interpreted in terms of a large-scale recumbent fold (Okay, 2001; Gessner et al., 2002), a series of nappes stacked during south-directed thrusting (Ring et al., 1999a; Gessner et al., 2001c), and a series of north-directed thrusts that subsequently collapsed either in a bivergent fashion (Hetzel et al., 1998) or through top-to-south extension (Bozkurt and Park, 1994; Bozkurt, 2007).

The key controversies are focused on which structures are related to the kinematics of early Tertiary Alpine crustal shortening, which ones are related to late Tertiary crustal extension, and how this fits with the observed large-scale architecture of the massif. Whereas the role of Miocene to Pliocene normal fault systems bounding the Gediz and Büyük Menderes Grabens

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