Part B. The Menderes Massif
Published:January 01, 2011
The Menderes Massif is a complex geological terrane. Despite much research progress in the past ten years, there are still substantial unresolved issues regarding its tectonic and meta-morphic history. Although we would like to outline some key controversies here, we recommend the review section in Bozkurt and Oberhänsli’s 2001 editorial article (Bozkurt and Oberhänsli, 2001) and van Hinsbergen et al. (2010) for an attempt to reconcile local structure with geodynamics. The pre-Miocene tectonics of the Menderes Massif have been interpreted in terms of a large-scale recumbent fold (Okay, 2001; Gessner et al., 2002), a series of nappes stacked during south-directed thrusting (Ring et al., 1999a; Gessner et al., 2001c), and a series of north-directed thrusts that subsequently collapsed either in a bivergent fashion (Hetzel et al., 1998) or through top-to-south extension (Bozkurt and Park, 1994; Bozkurt, 2007).
The key controversies are focused on which structures are related to the kinematics of early Tertiary Alpine crustal shortening, which ones are related to late Tertiary crustal extension, and how this fits with the observed large-scale architecture of the massif. Whereas the role of Miocene to Pliocene normal fault systems bounding the Gediz and Büyük Menderes Grabens
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Field Guide to Samos and the Menderes Massif
This field-trip guide explores the tectonics of Samos and the Menderes Massif, two fascinating areas within the eastern Mediterranean section of the Tethyan orogen. The guide includes detailed outcrop descriptions, maps, and diagrams to explore along-strike variations in the Hellenide-Anatolide orogen, including the architecture of the Early Tertiary Alpine nappe stack and its strong Miocene extensional overprint. The suggested itinerary is based on the 2010 Geological Society of America Field Forum: “Significance of Along-Strike Variations for the 3-D Architecture of Orogens: The Hellenides and Anatolides in the Eastern Mediterranean.” The outcrop descriptions begin with Day 1 in Samos, where, atypically for the N-S stretched Aegean region, Miocene extension is E-W. The focus of Day 2 is on high-pressure assemblages in northern Samos. The following three days explore the Anatolide Belt in western Turkey, where the Menderes nappes—also known as the Menderes Massif—form the tectonic footwall below the Cycladic Blueschist Unit.