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The Mississippian formations and their varied faunas in the type area in the upper Mississippi Valley suggest a wide variety of paleoecological environments. The rock types include black paper-thin shale, greenish clay shale, massive mudstone and siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate, breccia, lithographic limestone, oölitic limestone, fine-grained earthy and dolomitic limestone, dolomite, coarse-grained crinoidal and other types of limestone. The sediments were laid down in relatively shallow seas.

The area is structurally a part of the Central Interior Lowlands. The structure is essentially that of a platform of crystalline igneous rocks overlain by a relatively thin cover of sediments. Larger positive areas...

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