Magnus Fries, 1965. "Outlines of the Late-Glacial and Postglacial Vegetational and Climatic History of Sweden, Illustrated by Three Generalized Pollen Diagrams", International Studies on the Quaternary: Papers Prepared on the Occasion of the VII Congress of the International Association for Quaternary Research Boulder, Colorado, 1965, H. E. Wright, Jr., David G. Frey
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The general sequence of the Late-glacial and Postglacial vegetational development in Sweden is illustrated by three generalized pollen diagrams which represent the major forest regions. The Late-glacial period (pollen zones I–III), with an open-ground vegetation of shade-intolerant pioneer plants, is only represented in deposits south of the Central Swedish Moraines. To the north the forest, mostly of birch, is presumed to have migrated close behind the retreating ice in early Postglacial time (zone IV). Most of the Postglacial (zones V–VIII) is characterized by luxuriant forest growth, favored by a comparatively warm climate, with optimum in zone VII. During the last part of the Postglacial (zone IX), or locally earlier, the vegetational landscape was influenced by the climatic deterioration and formation of raw humus and peat and was transformed through the activities of man.