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Thanks are due to Mr. Harold W. Murray, cartographic Engineer, Coast and Geodetic Survey, for his interest and work in making a detailed study of the old surveys between the northwest corner of Chart V and the narrows of the Hudson River. He has compiled the result of this study on Plate 10, and of this work he makes the following comment:

“In studying the head of the submerged Hudson River Channel off Sandy Hook on Chart V one’s interest in the configuration of the present bottom turns northwestward to the area lying between the submerged channel head and the Narrows.

A perusal of the recent surveys and charts in this area reveals that nature’s handiwork has been altered in that a number of natural channels have been either artificially deepened or created to accommodate vessels of larger draft. Ambrose Channel, for example, is now dredged to an effective surface depth of 40 feet. Formerly, depths as shoal as 15 to 21 feet existed at the eastern end of the present cut.

In order to provide a picture of the natural configuration of the features existing in this area prior to the development of dredged channels, a study has been made of the intensive hydrographic surveys that were made by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey during the period of 1885 to 1888. The results of the study are shown on Plate 10.

It will be noted that to the eastward of an imaginary line extending approximately due southward . . .

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