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The Paleocene–early Eocene interval is punctuated by a series of transient warming events known as hyperthermals that have been associated with changes in the carbon isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we present and discuss a detailed record of calcareous nannofossil and foraminiferal assemblages coupled with high-resolution geochemical, isotopic, and environmental magnetic records across the middle Ypresian at the Contessa Road section (Gubbio, Italy). This allows characterization of the Eocene Thermal Maximum 3 (ETM3, K or X) and recognition of four minor (I1, I2, J, L) hyperthermals. At the Contessa Road section, the ETM3 is marked by short-lived negative...

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