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The Siberian craton was affected by flood basalt volcanism at least twice during the Devonian (Yakutsk-Vilyui province) and Permian–Triassic (Siberian province) periods. In both cases volcanism appeared as brief pulses of flood basalt eruptions, followed by kimberlitic (and lamproitic) emplacement. Pressure estimations for the kimberlite-entrained mantle xenoliths reflect that the lithosphere was 190–230 km thick at the time of the Devonian flood basalt volcanism. Differently from Devonian kimberlites, the majority of Triassic kimberlites are diamond free, but at least one Triassic kimberlite pipe and some lamproites are diamondiferous, suggesting that the Siberian lithosphere remained thick during the Permian–Triassic flood basalt volcanic activity. If both the lithosphere and the asthenosphere were volatile poor, thick cratonic lithosphere prevented melting even at an elevated geotherm. During the Paleozoic, Siberia was surrounded by subduction systems. The water deep cycle in association with fast subduction and slab stagnation in the mantle transition zone is proposed to cause fluxing of the asthenosphere by water plus other fluids via wet diapir formation in the mantle transition zone. Such diapirs started to melt in the asthenosphere beneath thick cratonic lithosphere, producing voluminous melts. Mafic melts probably accumulated beneath cratonic lithosphere and rapidly erupted on the surface in response to stress-induced drainage events, as assumed for some other cratonic flood basalts.

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