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Popular models of slow unidirectional evolution of each planet are based on dogmatized 1970s–1980s speculations that Earth has a perpetually hot core that drives narrow vertical plumes of unfractionated mantle which produce volcanoes, propel lithosphere plates, and are compensated by subduction. Long-lasting hot cores, plumes, and minimal fractionation were dogmatized also for Venus and Mars, by analogy, but with a different stagnant-lid conjecture, rather by disrupted-lid plate tectonics, for each. Physics, empirical data, and planetary imagery disprove all three mutually incompatible models. Radiogenic heat, ~5× greater than now, forced synaccretionary magma-ocean fractionation of each planet before 4.5 Ga. This produced...

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