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The Plate Tectonic Revolution that transformed Earth science has occurred together with revolutions in imagery and planetary studies. Earth's outer layer (lithosphere: upper mantle and crust) comprises relatively rigid plates ranging in size from near-global to kilometer scale; boundaries can be sharp (a few kilometers wide to diffuse, hundreds of kilometers) and are reflected in earthquake distribution. Divergent, transform fault, and convergent (subduction) margins are present at all scales. Collisions can occur between several crustal types and at subduction zones of varying polarity. Modern plate processes and their geologic products permit inference of Earth's plate tectonic history in times before...

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