Skip to Main Content

INTRODUCTION

Until relatively recently, only cosmonauts and astronauts had ever viewed the Earth as a planet suspended in space. These pioneers brought back stunning photographs of the “Blue Marble” and “Earth Rise.” It wasn't quite like being out there in orbit, but nevertheless such images profoundly influenced the global human psyche and promoted awareness of the finite nature of our home in the Cosmos. Now, with the development of virtual globe technology such as Google Earth (GE), everyone who has access to the Internet can visualize the Earth as if we were all astronauts.

GE has emerged as one of the most powerful and easy-to-use tools for viewing, tracking, and analyzing geological features, surface processes, and events. Since the application's release in 2005, GE's use in the geosciences has evolved from simple fly-bys of landforms to dynamic models displaying geologic processes. The diversity of applications of GE in geoscience education and research has been highlighted at the annual meetings of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and Geological Society of America (GSA) in dedicated and popular sessions (Bailey, 2009).

Discussions at those meetings indicated the need for a specialized forum where development of virtual globe-based educational resources and visualizations could be coordinated among the greater geoscience community. The result was a GSA Penrose Conference, which brought together educators, researchers, publishers and software developers (from both and academia and Google Inc.) to discuss recent advances in the development of educational modules and research visualizations that use the Google mapping services and related tools.

The conference was held onsite at the Google Inc. headquarters in Mountain View, California (https://sites.google.com/site/gepenrose/) in January 2011. The primary goal was to pool ideas and resources from the broader community, with the hope of stimulating new initiatives and directions in the use of GE in the geosciences, as well as encouraging the active participation of Google Inc. in the future development of geoscience education tools. The papers in this special volume highlight cutting-edge educational and research uses that were demonstrated in Mountain View, along with examples of projects that developed from collaborations established at this meeting.

The volume is organized into four sections: (i) Data Visualization; (ii) Digital Mapping; (iii) Virtual Field Experiences; and (iv) Educational Models, Learning Methods, and Assessment. The foci of each section and their importance to geoscience education and research are described in the rest of this paper.

DATA VISUALIZATIONS

Google Earth is a computer program that integrates a global digital elevation model (DEM) with base surface imagery to create a 3D, mirror-world representation of the Earth (Bailey, 2010). Technically speaking, GE is only 2.5D as the model is projected onto a 2D computer screen with the appearance of being 3D. The combination of terrain and land coverage data, literally, offers a whole world for students, teachers, researchers, or anyone to explore.

Google's large investment in acquiring global high-resolution data, and efforts to make important imagery available in a timely manner (Google Inc., 2010; Bradley et al., 2011; Hennessey-Fiske, 2011), has created an archive of imagery that individual researchers would not have the resources to compile. For geoscientists, this has provided imagery good enough to perform surveys that were traditionally only achievable through field-based methods. The utility of this archive is emphasized in Tewksbury et al. (this volume, chapter 2) and Fisher et al. (this volume, chapter 1). The authors in both papers use GE imagery to map surface morphologies related to regional geology. Tewksbury et al. (chapter 2) demonstrate this for the mapping of folds, faults, and lithological units in Egypt's Western Desert. Fisher et al. (chapter 1) have used GE to define channels widths in the Himalayan Mountains, landslide properties in Haiti, and fault characteristics in California.

For those who have their own data, GE also offers a framework through which to easily view and share that data. For example, Crosby (this volume, chapter 3) describes how a growing archive of high-resolution Lidar (light and detection ranging) derived data has been made easily accessible through GE. Williams et al. (this volume, chapter 4) use GE to view other imagery, in their case derived from ground penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetic gradiometry, and describe how GE can be used to annotate these data.

GE provides a canvas to which users can add their own geospatial data to create dynamic visualizations using Keyhole Markup Language (KML). This code is a type of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and thus is similar to Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) in form and structure (Wernecke, 2009). Like HTML, the function of many KML elements is self-evident. For example, <color>value</color> defines the color of an object, making KML a user-friendly and easy-to-learn coding language.

The idea of directly editing code is not a natural concept for many educators or even scientific researchers, as it lies outside their comfort zone or might involve learning time they do not have available. Fortunately, GE offers a way for non-developers to create visualizations as many (though not all) KML elements can be created directly in GE through the built-in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Users do not need to understand the underlying code as features such as color are manipulated directly through on screen widgets (Fig. 1).

Figure 1

Summary of KML which can be created directly in the Google Earth application versus KML that must be generated using external applications or by the user directly authoring code.

Figure 1

Summary of KML which can be created directly in the Google Earth application versus KML that must be generated using external applications or by the user directly authoring code.

The combination of GE and KML has opened up possibilities that previously only existed for those with knowledge of, and access to, proprietary applications (e.g., ArcGIS). Stewart and Baldwin (this volume, chapter 5) describe a case where geolocated photographs and videos were shared using KML, rather than as GIS shapefiles, to address the sustainability of marine resources.

For those who are comfortable authoring computer code there are even more possibilities offered by Google's Geo applications. Specifically, a GE application programming interface (API) allows users to embed customized versions of GE directly into web pages. The JavaScript API works with a GE plug-in that needs to be installed once on a given computer, and then functions across multiple web browsers. Using JavaScript, developers can create their own interface controls, link to functional scripts, or even create KML objects with greater functionality than is seen in the GE desktop application. The utility of JavaScript is discussed in De Paor et al. (this volume, chapter 6), and an example of how it can be used to create interactive screen overlays and customized control sliders is described by Dordevic (this volume, chapter 7).

One of the much-debated questions about GE (and Google Maps) is whether they can or should be considered a type of GIS (Turner, 2008). Arguments against it being identified as such generally emphasize the lack of built-in analytical capabilities similar to those found in ArcGIS or other image analysis programs. In GE the application is only concerned with the spatial location, size and other <Style> properties of the geometry (vector data) and imagery (raster data). It does not consider the inter-relation between different KML objects or relative “values” of pixels in an image, which are core functions in ArcGIS. However, by linking GE to other Google services some of these limitations can be overcome. For vector data, Google Fusion Tables (Gonzalez et al., 2010) can provide the functionality of geospatial relational database in a user-friendly interface. For imagery, Google Earth Engine (Google Inc., 2011), while still early in its development, has exciting potential for manipulating raster images directly within the GE API.

De Paor et al. (this volume, chapter 6) briefly describe how to extend the functionality of GE by linking to Fusion Tables. Zular et al. (this volume, chapter 8) have implemented an example that combines geomorphologic observations made in GE with laboratory analyses data collated in a Fusion Table. Nunn and Bentley (this volume, chapter 9) employ further capabilities of Fusion Tables to create charts to display spatial and temporal trends in Louisiana's water usage. All of these implementations of Fusion Tables contain data with location components, and so have the option to be displayed on a map. The Google Maps API is integrated into Fusion Tables, but Fusion Tables also generate KML links and <iframe> code (the latter allows that instance of Google Maps to be embedded on a web page). The KML can be downloaded as a “current view” static file or as a network link. The advantage of the latter is that any changes made to the Fusion Table, and hence the KML, are pushed to the user when the link is refreshed, without the user having to download a new file.

Online links also allow interaction between GE and other “cloud” services, such as Google Docs and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) blog feeds. Innovative research has taken advantage of these links to generate dynamic KML that can track events in near-real time. For example, Potapov and Hronusov (this volume, chapter 10) use these services to create KML that maps the movements of radio-tagged deer and birds.

DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAPPING

While KML allows users to augment the GE landscape, the base globe itself has also developed into an important tool for education and research. GE provides a universal interface to imagery and derived products. It enables users to easily view spatial and temporal changes across images and maps, and to then mark or annotate features using KML. These functions are also possible in traditional GIS technologies, but the methods can be cumbersome and for many purposes the advantages of GE (accessible, free, simple user interface) outweigh the advantages of traditional GIS (more exact mapping, control of map projections, sophisticated analytical tools).

Shufeldt et al. (this volume, chapter 11) highlight benefits of using GE rather than printed materials for displaying geological maps. In particular, they emphasize the ability of GE to drill down into different scales of data by displaying higher resolution maps as the user's viewpoint gets closer to the ground. This tile pyramid method, which is also used by the base imagery, is the core of what makes GE special. Although this was previously possibly in desktop GIS applications, what stands GE apart is how tile pyramids (Fig. 2) have been optimized to load rapidly, transition smoothly, and work on all sizes of computing devices (smartphones, pads, laptops). This accessibility has encouraged many researchers to migrate data from GIS environments (Guth, this volume, chapter 12) and take the time to create visualizations of pre-digital maps. Simpson et al. (this volume, chapter 13) describe a case study of the latter for mapping of Vredefort Dome, South Africa.

Figure 2

Visions of scale in Google Earth. (A, B) Satellite view of Cascade Volcanoes in nadir and perspective. (C, D) Regional view of Mount St. Helens in nadir and perspective. (E, F) Mount St. Helens volcanic edific in nadir and perspective. (G, H) Mount St. Helens' lava dome in nadir and perspective.

Figure 2

Visions of scale in Google Earth. (A, B) Satellite view of Cascade Volcanoes in nadir and perspective. (C, D) Regional view of Mount St. Helens in nadir and perspective. (E, F) Mount St. Helens volcanic edific in nadir and perspective. (G, H) Mount St. Helens' lava dome in nadir and perspective.

For most geologists, remote mapping will never totally eliminate the need for fieldwork (Hasbargen, this volume, chapter 14). However, the scaling ability of GE can be combined with field-based knowledge to create maps across spatial scales that would be logistically impractical or complex on the ground (Lageson et al., this volume, chapter 15). As the archive of high-resolution imagery increases, there is also meaningful data to be found across temporal scales, e.g., landscapes shaped by active tectonic processes or surface processes. At a minimum, GE enables the identification of sites on which to focus ground-based research (Tewksbury et al., this volume, chapter 2), eliminating a need a for reconnaissance field trips.

Another advantage of using GE for remote geologic mapping is the 3D perspective and the ability to view 3D models of geologic structures. KML uses <Model> to display COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA) models read from Digital Asset Exchange (DAE) format files. These are easily created using SketchUp, a 3D modeling computer program that combines a tool-set with an intelligent drawing system (Fig. 3). SketchUp models can be imported into GE to show both above ground outcrops (De Donatis et al., this volume, chapter 16) and block diagrams of geological cross-sections (Karabinos, this volume, chapter17). Hill and Harrison (this volume, chapter 18) demonstrate that it is also possible to use SketchUp to fix limitations in GE's topographic model by adding terrain in areas where the resolution the data used is not high enough to show the real-life shape of the landscape.

Figure 3

A 3D geological cross-section under construction in SketchUp (courtesy of Paul Karabinos, Williams College).

Figure 3

A 3D geological cross-section under construction in SketchUp (courtesy of Paul Karabinos, Williams College).

Innovative technology is also augmenting the modern field geologist's view with a 3D perspective. Wang et al. (this volume, chapter 19) describe a systematic workflow to use an Apple iPad to manually trace geological features on 2D photos and then use them to construct 3D models of an outcrop. Tools such as these and applications such as SketchUp are changing geologists' mindsets from both an educational and a field-based research perspective.

VIRTUAL FIELD EXPERIENCES

The impact of GE on geologic mapping techniques has been described, but its use in educational settings also has helped modernize both the methods and mindsets of students toward geology. Geology is an exciting and dynamic science but it can also be limited in the classroom by the fact that traditional information sources (lectures, laboratory exercises, textbooks, and even multimedia resources) cannot always convey the scope and setting of landscapes and geologic features. The use of virtual field experiences (VFEs), especially those based in GE, can remove that limitation and provide a proxy for field trips that are not logistically feasible.

There are problems with VFEs, especially when considering their practical and pedagogical design, which are discussed by Granshaw and Duggan-Haas (this volume, chapter 20), but there are also major advantages aside from making “trips” logistically possible. It has been suggested that the ability of GE to scale from a whole-earth global view to a detailed outcrop image gives geologists a perspective and insight that was previously hard to gain (Whitmeyer et al., 2008). The same is true for GigaPans, high-resolution photographic panoramas that employ the same method of image tile pyramids that make GE so efficient (Fig. 4). Although one GigaPan is a single photomosaic, it is possible to build a series of GigaPans at different scales for the same target, e.g., outcrop to thin section. Using a common topic or theme, Piatek et al. (this volume, chapter 21) demonstrate how these GigaPan series act as VFEs that are useful for explaining geologic concepts.

Figure 4

(A) GigaPan of Denali National Park. The red boxes indicate the area focused on in lower image (B) GigaPans use an image tile pyramid to show higher resolution detail when the user zooms in.

Figure 4

(A) GigaPan of Denali National Park. The red boxes indicate the area focused on in lower image (B) GigaPans use an image tile pyramid to show higher resolution detail when the user zooms in.

A limitation of VFEs is the lack of student-to-student interactions within the virtual environment—something that is an important component during real field trips. Many students will ask their peers questions before seeking help from the instructor, especially when new concepts are being encountered. To overcome this limitation Dordevic and Wild (this volume, chapter 22) have developed a way for avatars—virtual representation of users—to communicate and cooperate while exploring field locations with the GE API. The movements and actions of these avatars can be logged allowing VFEs to be refined and to scaffold student learning.

GE offers an ideal virtual field environment as “trips” across the real-world mirror landscape can be augmented with KML to provide extra information. This information compensates for the lack of a field trip instructor. Most commonly, a VFE in GE displays information using different types of the <Placemark> geometry (points, lines or polygons) and associated description balloons containing text and images. The user navigates to each placemark and clicks on the object to display the balloon. For example, Lang et al. (this volume, chapter 23) describe a numbered sequence of point-placemarks, which represent “stops” on a trip around the volcanoes of Tenerife, Spain. This work was based on a real-life field trip that followed the same route.

Using a similar approach, Muller (this volume, chapter 24) created placemarks and description balloons to archive 55 years of road logs from field trips offered by the New York State Geological Association (NYSGA). Muller makes use of Fusion Tables to store, and in some cases merge, the KML created. Muller's work takes advantage of the detailed, though not always correct, geologic and route descriptions contained in the NYGSA guidebooks. By comparison, Rueger and Beck (this volume, chapter 25) created KML based on information gleaned by them and others (Clark, 2003) from historical documents and journals on an eighteenth century military march into Canada. Rueger and Beck's goal was not just to map the march's route, but to use GE to interpret how the landscape influenced the path taken. This contrasts with Muller's NYSGA guidebook KML, which describes the geology along a specific pre-planned route. The concept that VFEs can add to the understanding of observations made in the real-world was tested by Eusden et al. (this volume, chapter 26) in an introductory geology class. They used GPS devices and cameras to collect multimedia data during a field trip and displayed that data in GE using KML created by the students. Assessment of the results was qualitative in nature, but suggested that this approach is beneficial to learning.

In the GE environment, the virtual field experience is not just confined to the terrestrial tier. Through one simple menu option in the desktop application, or one line of JavaScript in the API, the user can change the base imagery, terrain and content from Earth to Mars, the Moon or even to view the stars (Fig. 5). Members of the planetary community have appreciated these additions but wish there were more components to the “Google Universe.” To aid investigations of Venus, De Paor et al. (this volume, chapter 27) have created “Google Venus,” which uses global image overlays, models of geological sections (cf. Karabinos, chapter 17) and placemarks with descriptions to compile a KML collection similar to that included by default in GE for the Moon and Mars (Fig. 5).

Figure 5

Google Universe. (A) The Google Earth browser. (B) Google Mars. (C) Google Moon. (D) Google Sky. The non-terrestrial globes use the Google Earth application but replace the default imagery, terrain, and layers with new content.

Figure 5

Google Universe. (A) The Google Earth browser. (B) Google Mars. (C) Google Moon. (D) Google Sky. The non-terrestrial globes use the Google Earth application but replace the default imagery, terrain, and layers with new content.

EDUCATIONAL MODELS, LEARNING METHODS, AND ASSESSMENT

A potential flaw of VFEs is that sometimes there is too much freedom for users, especially if there is a large environment to explore and the exploration is left open ended. While GE can contribute to this flaw, it also includes functionality that can be used to guide users though the virtual environment; Google Earth Tours. These tours are KML scripts that record movement around the 3D globe and interaction with other KML objects. A tour can be replayed to replicate that same movement and interaction. Tours can be automatically generated from a folder of placemarks (Fig. 6) or a path, or they can be freeform and used to record the user's independent navigation. Since GE Tours are composed of KML code, they can be shared as easily as any KML files, so once created they offer a distributable, “guided” VFE.

Figure 6

Brief Guide to creating an automated Point-Placemarks Tour. (A) Collect and download photos. (B) Upload photos to web. (C) Create a Folder. (D) Create a Point-Placemarks that the mark locations of the photos in Folder. (E) Customize the Placemark icons. (F) Add text and/or images to the description balloons.

(G) Apply unique, 3D perspective views to each Placemark. (H) Change the “Touring” settings using the Google Earth > Preferences (Mac) or Tools > Options (PC) menu. (I) Select the Folder and press the play button that appears at the bottom of the Place sidebar panel (see red oval). (J) Save the tour that is generated (see red circle); it will appear as a KML object in the sidebar (see blue oval).

Figure 6

Brief Guide to creating an automated Point-Placemarks Tour. (A) Collect and download photos. (B) Upload photos to web. (C) Create a Folder. (D) Create a Point-Placemarks that the mark locations of the photos in Folder. (E) Customize the Placemark icons. (F) Add text and/or images to the description balloons.

(G) Apply unique, 3D perspective views to each Placemark. (H) Change the “Touring” settings using the Google Earth > Preferences (Mac) or Tools > Options (PC) menu. (I) Select the Folder and press the play button that appears at the bottom of the Place sidebar panel (see red oval). (J) Save the tour that is generated (see red circle); it will appear as a KML object in the sidebar (see blue oval).

GE Tours are easy to create, but the author of a tour also needs to consider the user experience, the subject matter being illustrated, and the learning objectives. Sometimes it might not be appropriate to use a GE Tour, but in many cases they are a very useful approach if designed appropriately. Treves and Bailey (this volume, chapter 28) describe a series of design-based best practices that are recommended for developers creating GE Tours for educational purposes.

Design is an important consideration for all classroom uses of GE. An educator needs to consider the scale of their goals, whether the goal is to broadly encourage geo-education (Lee and Guertin, this volume, chapter 29) or to specifically integrate GE into a curriculum (Almquist, this volume, chapter 30). GE and KML also provide a common medium for collaborations between students around the world. An example of this is the Northern Environmental Education Development project (NEED), an initiative involving schools in Ireland, Norway, Iceland, and Finland that seeks to share geo-visualizations (Hennessy et al., this volume, chapter 31).

Currently, GE's most common role in the classroom is to provide additional illustrations for specific geoscience topics. There exist many “good” sources of geoscience KML. Well-known examples include: The Smithsonian's Volcanoes of the World (Venzke et al., 2006); National Snow and Ice Data Center's ice and glacier mapping (Ballagh et al., 2011); the U.S. Geological Survey's real-time earthquake locations (Blair and Ticci, 2006); the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's severe weather tracking (Smith and Lakshmanan, 2011); and NASA's atmosphere profiling (Chen et al., 2009). Using these resources, or by developing new ones, educators are finding a role for GE and other Google Geo Tools within their subject areas. Examples include geomorphology (Dolliver, this volume, chapter 32), hydrology (Habib et al., this volume, chapter 33) and oceanography (Hochstaedter and Sullivan, this volume, chapter 34).

The question remains though, “How is Google Earth influencing learning?” Answering this question is key, as it will determine the direction towards which educational developers need to head (Gobert et al., this volume, chapter 35). Some studies, especially in the area of GE-based virtual field experiences and tours, have included assessments of the impact on students (Treves and Engelbrecht, 2011; Johnson et al., 2011; Eusden et al., chapter 26), and early signs are encouraging. However, these assessments were qualitative or semi-quantitative. More studies targeting in-depth testing of the impact of Google Geo Tools are needed as new educational strategies are developed.

CONCLUSIONS

Google Earth is now a much-used and relied upon application for geoscience educators and researchers. It is in their interests to see GE improve and better fit their needs, as well as encouraging the development of associated applications (e.g., SketchUp, GigaPan), which add to the utility of GE. Continued communication among all parties—educators, researchers, developers, publishers, and others with an interest in that process—are important. The 2011 GSA Penrose Conference provided these parties with an opportunity to gather in one location and develop new collaborations. This special volume highlights collaborations and projects founded or shared at that gathering, and is a documentation of the importance of GE and related tools to geoscience education and research.

Engaging scientific visualizations are important. They have the potential to bring data to life, increase understanding of natural processes, and promote awareness of global change. We believe that GE-based visualizations are already transforming geoscience education and research and that this is only the beginning.

The editors would like to express our appreciation to Google Inc. for hosting the 2011 GSA Penrose Conference that led to the publication of this special volume. We sincerely thank both the conference attendees and authors of papers in this special volume for their participation and enthusiasm. We would also especially like to acknowledge the reviewers whose time and efforts made the publication of this special volume possible:

Carlos Aiken, Steve Allard, Heather Almquist, Chuck Bailey, Greg Baker, Alan Benimoff, Callan Bentley, Andy Bobyarchick, Katherine Boggs, Andre Breton, Anna Courtier, Rónadh Cox, Chris Crosby, Holly Dolliver, Mauro De Donatis, Natalia Deligne, Don Duggan-Haas, Tyler Erickson, Dyk Eusden, Martin Feely, Ioannis Georgiou, Tod Greene, Laura Guertin, Peter Guth, Michael Harrison, Les Hasbargen, Matt Heavner, Ronán Hennessy, Otto Hermelin, Jesse Hill, Victoria Hill, Fred Hochstaedter, Eric Horsman, Micah Jessup, Paul Karabinos, Eric de Kemp, Tom Kurkowski, Dave Lageson, Wes Lauer, Nick Lang, Jack Loveless, Karen McNeal, Riley Milner, Alexandra Moore, Otto Muller, Dan Murray, Rick Murray, Jeff Nunn, Carol Ormond, Terry Pavlis, Lyman Persico, Jen Piatek, Arancha Pinan-Llamas, Phillip Prince, Eric Pyle, Bruce Rueger, Uwe Schindler, Peter Selkin, Colin Shaw, Owen Shufeldt, Jill Singer, Gary Solar, Meg Stewart, Barb Tewksbury, Dave Tewksbury, Ryan Thigpen, Peter Thompson, Sarah Titus, Rich Treves, Rich Whittecar, Crystal Wilson, Mike Winiski, Christine Witkowski, Michael Wizevich, and Andre Zular.

Special thanks are due to Chris Condit, who served as special editor in cases where the regular editors had a conflict of interests.

The Google Penrose Conference at Mountain View and this GSA Special Paper were funded in part by NSF TUES 1022755. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or Google Inc.

REFERENCES CITED

Almquist
H.
Blank
L.
Estrada
J.
2012
this volume
Developing a scope and sequence for using Google Earth in the middle school earth science classroom
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(30)
Bailey
J.E.
2009
Virtual Globes at AGU, http://www.snap.uaf.edu/earth/agu/ (accessed April 2012)
Bailey
J.E.
2010
Entry for “Virtual Globe,”
in
Warf
B.
ed
Encyclopedia of Geography
 
Sage Publications
3528
p
Ballagh
L.M.
Raup
B.H.
Duerr
R.E.
Khalsa
S.J.S.
Helm
C.
Fowler
D.
Gupte
A.
2011
Representing scientific data sets in KML: Methods and challenges
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
37
p
57
64
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.05.004
Blair
J.L.
Ticci
M.
2006
Serving Bay Area geologic hazard information in Google Earth KML; a network-link approach
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
87
no. 52
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN43A-0896, 11–15 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Bradley
E.S.
Roberts
D.A.
Dennison
P.E.
Green
R.O.
Eastwood
E.
Lundeen
S.R.
McCubbin
I.B.
Leifer
I.
2011
Google Earth and Fusion Tables in support of time-critical collaboration; Mapping the deepwater horizon oil spill with the AVIRIS airborne spectrometer
Earth Science Informatics
  v.
4
no. 4
p
169
179
doi:10.1007/s12145-011-0085-4
Chen
A.
Leptoukh
G.Z.
Kempler
S.
Lynnes
C.
Savtchenko
A.
Nadeau
D.
Farley
J.
2009
Visualization of A-Train vertical profiles using Google Earth
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
35
p
419
427
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.006
Clark
S.
2003
Following their footsteps: A travel guide and history of the 1775 secret expedition to capture Quebec
Shapleigh, Maine
Clark Books
123
p
Crosby
C.J.
2012
this volume
Lidar and Google Earth: Simplifying access to high-resolution topography data
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(03)
De Donatis
M.
Susini
S.
Foi
M.
2012
this volume
Geology from real field to 3D modeling and Google Earth virtual environments: Methods and goals from the Apennines (Furlo Gorge, Italy)
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(16)
De Paor
D.G.
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Marks
M.
Bailey
J.E.
2012
this volume
chapter 6, Geoscience applications of client/server scripts, Google Fusion Tables, and dynamic KML
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(06)
De Paor
D.G.
Hansen
V.L.
Dordevic
M.M.
2012
this volume
chapter 27, Google Venus
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(27)
Dolliver
H.A.S.
2012
this volume
Using Google Earth to teach geomorphology
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(32)
Dordevic
M.M.
2012
this volume
Designing interactive screen overlays to enhance effectiveness of Google Earth geoscience resources
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(07)
Dordevic
M.M.
Wild
S.C.
2012
this volume
Avatars and multi-student interactions in Google Earth–based virtual field experiences
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(22)
Eusden
J.D.
Jr.
Duvall
M.
Bryant
M.
2012
this volume
Google Earth mashup of the geology in the Presidential Range, New Hampshire: Linking real and virtual field trips for an introductory geology class
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(26)
Fisher
G.B.
Amos
C.B.
Bookhagen
B.
Burbank
D.W.
Godard
V.
2012
this volume
Channel widths, landslides, faults, and beyond: The new world order of high-spatial resolution Google Earth imagery in the study of earth surface processes
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(01)
Gobert
J.
Wild
S.C.
Rossi
L.
2012
this volume
Testing the effects of prior coursework and gender on geoscience learning with Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(35)
Gonzalez
H.
Halevy
A.
Jensen
C.S.
Langen
A.
Madhavan
J.
Shapley
R.
Shen
W.
2010
Google Fusion Tables
Data management, integration and collaboration in the cloud, SoCC'10, 10–11 June 2010, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, ACM 978-1-4503-0036-0/10/06
Google Inc.
2010
Google Crisis Response—Haiti earthquake
Google Inc.
2011
Google Earth Engine
http://earthengine.google.org/ (accessed April 2012)
Granshaw
F.D.
Duggan-Haas
D.
2012
this volume
Virtual field-work in geoscience teacher education: Issues, techniques, and models
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(20)
Guth
P.L.
2012
this volume
Automated export of GIS maps to Google Earth: Tool for research and teaching
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(12)
Hasbargen
L.E.
2012
this volume
A test of the three-point vector method to determine strike and dip utilizing digital aerial imagery and topography
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(14)
Habib
E.
Ma
Y.
Williams
D.
2012
this volume
Development of a web-based hydrologic education tool using Google Earth resources
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(33)
Hennessy
R.
Arnason
T.
Ratinen
I.
Rubensdotter
L.
2012
this volume
Google Earth geo-education resources: A transnational approach from Ireland, Iceland, Finland, and Norway
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(31)
Hennessey-Fiske
M.
2011
Google releases first satellite images of Japan after quake
Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2011
Hill
J.S.
Harrison
M.J.
2012
this volume
Terrain modification in Google Earth using SketchUp: An example from the Western Blue Ridge of Tennessee
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(18)
Hochstaedter
A.
Sullivan
D.
2012
this volume
Oceanography and Google Earth: Observing ocean processes with time animations and student-built ocean drifters
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(34)
Johnson
N.D.
Lang
N.P.
Zophy
K.T.
2011
Overcoming assessment problems in Google Earth–based assignments
Journal of Geoscience Education
  v.
59
p
99
105
doi:10.5408/1.3604822
Karabinos
P.
2012
this volume
Creating interactive 3-D block diagrams from geologic maps and cross-sections
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(17)
Lageson
D.R.
Larsen
M.C.
Lynn
H.B.
Treadway
W.A.
2012
this volume
Applications of Google Earth Pro to fracture and fault studies of Laramide anticlines in the Rocky Mountain foreland
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(15)
Lang
N.P.
Lang
K.T.
Camodeca
B.M.
2012
this volume
A geology-focused virtual field trip to Tenerife, Spain
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(23)
Lee
Tsan-Kuang
Guertin
L.
2012
this volume
Building an education game with the Google Earth application programming interface to enhance geographic literacy
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(29)
Muller
O.H.
2012
this volume
Moving New York State Geological Association guidebooks into Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(24)
Nunn
J.A.
Bentley
L.
2012
this volume
Visualization of spatial and temporal trends in Louisiana water usage using Google Fusion Tables
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(09)
Piatek
J.L.
Kairies Beatty
C.L.
Beatty
W.L.
Wizevich
M.C.
Steullet
A.
2012
this volume
Developing virtual field experiences for undergraduates with high-resolution panoramas (GigaPans) at multiple scales
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(21)
Potapov
E.
Hronusov
V.
2012
this volume
Extreme dynamic mapping: Animals map themselves on the “Cloud,”
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(10)
Rueger
B.F.
Beck
E.N
2012
this volume
Benedict Arnold's march to Quebec in 1775: An historical characterization using Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(25)
Shufeldt
O.P.
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
C.M.
2012
this volume
The new frontier of interactive, digital geologic maps: Google Earth–based multilevel maps of Virginia geology
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(11)
Simpson
C.
De Paor
D.G.
Beebe
M.R.
Strand
J.M.
2012
this volume
Transferring maps and data from pre-digital era theses to Google Earth: A case study from the Vredefort Dome, South Africa
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(13)
Smith
T.M.
Lakshmanan
V.
2011
Real-time, rapidly updating severe weather products for virtual globes
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
37
p
3
12
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.03.023
Stewart
M.E.
Baldwin
K.
2012
this volume
Workshops, community outreach, and KML for visualization of marine resources in the Grenadine Islands
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(05)
Tewksbury
B.J.
Dokmak
A.A.K.
Tarabees
E.A.
Mansour
A.S.
2012
this volume
Google Earth and geologic research in remote regions of the developing world: An example from the Western Desert of Egypt
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(02)
Treves
R.
Bailey
J.E.
2012
this volume
Best practices on how to design Google Earth tours for education
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(28)
Treves
R.
Engelbrecht
P.
2011
User tests on Google Earth Tour comprehension
 
University of Southampton
10
p
Turner
A.
2008
Is Google Maps GIS?
Venzke
E.
Siebert
L.
Luhr
J.F.
2006
Smithsonian volcano data on Google Earth
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
87
no. 52
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN43A-0900, 11–15 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Wang
M.
Rodriguez-Gomez
M.I.
Aiken
C.L.V.
2012
this volume
Interacting with existing 3D photorealistic outcrop models on site and in the lab or classroom, facilitated with an iPad and a PC
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(19)
Wernecke
J.
2009
The KML handbook: Geographic visualization for the web
 
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
Addison-Wesley
368
p
Whitmeyer
S.J.
De Paor
D.G.
Daniels
J.
Nicoletti
J.
Rivera
M.
San-tangelo
B.
2008
A pyramid scheme for constructing geologic maps on geobrowsers
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
89
no. 53
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN41B-1140, 15–19 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Williams
C.M.
Baker
G.S.
Ault
B.A.
2012
this volume
Enhancing usability of near-surface geophysical data in archaeological surveys via Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(04)
Zular
A.
Guedes
C.C.F.
Mendes
V.R.
Sawakuchi
A.O.
Giannini
P.C.F.
Tanaka
A.P.B.
Fornari
M.
Nascimento
D.R.
Jr.
2012
this volume
Geomorphological analysis of coastal depositional systems in SE Brazil aided by Google Earth coupled with the integration of chronological and sedimentological data by means of a Google Fusion Table
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(08)

Figures & Tables

Figure 1

Summary of KML which can be created directly in the Google Earth application versus KML that must be generated using external applications or by the user directly authoring code.

Figure 1

Summary of KML which can be created directly in the Google Earth application versus KML that must be generated using external applications or by the user directly authoring code.

Figure 2

Visions of scale in Google Earth. (A, B) Satellite view of Cascade Volcanoes in nadir and perspective. (C, D) Regional view of Mount St. Helens in nadir and perspective. (E, F) Mount St. Helens volcanic edific in nadir and perspective. (G, H) Mount St. Helens' lava dome in nadir and perspective.

Figure 2

Visions of scale in Google Earth. (A, B) Satellite view of Cascade Volcanoes in nadir and perspective. (C, D) Regional view of Mount St. Helens in nadir and perspective. (E, F) Mount St. Helens volcanic edific in nadir and perspective. (G, H) Mount St. Helens' lava dome in nadir and perspective.

Figure 3

A 3D geological cross-section under construction in SketchUp (courtesy of Paul Karabinos, Williams College).

Figure 3

A 3D geological cross-section under construction in SketchUp (courtesy of Paul Karabinos, Williams College).

Figure 4

(A) GigaPan of Denali National Park. The red boxes indicate the area focused on in lower image (B) GigaPans use an image tile pyramid to show higher resolution detail when the user zooms in.

Figure 4

(A) GigaPan of Denali National Park. The red boxes indicate the area focused on in lower image (B) GigaPans use an image tile pyramid to show higher resolution detail when the user zooms in.

Figure 5

Google Universe. (A) The Google Earth browser. (B) Google Mars. (C) Google Moon. (D) Google Sky. The non-terrestrial globes use the Google Earth application but replace the default imagery, terrain, and layers with new content.

Figure 5

Google Universe. (A) The Google Earth browser. (B) Google Mars. (C) Google Moon. (D) Google Sky. The non-terrestrial globes use the Google Earth application but replace the default imagery, terrain, and layers with new content.

Figure 6

Brief Guide to creating an automated Point-Placemarks Tour. (A) Collect and download photos. (B) Upload photos to web. (C) Create a Folder. (D) Create a Point-Placemarks that the mark locations of the photos in Folder. (E) Customize the Placemark icons. (F) Add text and/or images to the description balloons.

(G) Apply unique, 3D perspective views to each Placemark. (H) Change the “Touring” settings using the Google Earth > Preferences (Mac) or Tools > Options (PC) menu. (I) Select the Folder and press the play button that appears at the bottom of the Place sidebar panel (see red oval). (J) Save the tour that is generated (see red circle); it will appear as a KML object in the sidebar (see blue oval).

Figure 6

Brief Guide to creating an automated Point-Placemarks Tour. (A) Collect and download photos. (B) Upload photos to web. (C) Create a Folder. (D) Create a Point-Placemarks that the mark locations of the photos in Folder. (E) Customize the Placemark icons. (F) Add text and/or images to the description balloons.

(G) Apply unique, 3D perspective views to each Placemark. (H) Change the “Touring” settings using the Google Earth > Preferences (Mac) or Tools > Options (PC) menu. (I) Select the Folder and press the play button that appears at the bottom of the Place sidebar panel (see red oval). (J) Save the tour that is generated (see red circle); it will appear as a KML object in the sidebar (see blue oval).

Contents

GeoRef

References

REFERENCES CITED

Almquist
H.
Blank
L.
Estrada
J.
2012
this volume
Developing a scope and sequence for using Google Earth in the middle school earth science classroom
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(30)
Bailey
J.E.
2009
Virtual Globes at AGU, http://www.snap.uaf.edu/earth/agu/ (accessed April 2012)
Bailey
J.E.
2010
Entry for “Virtual Globe,”
in
Warf
B.
ed
Encyclopedia of Geography
 
Sage Publications
3528
p
Ballagh
L.M.
Raup
B.H.
Duerr
R.E.
Khalsa
S.J.S.
Helm
C.
Fowler
D.
Gupte
A.
2011
Representing scientific data sets in KML: Methods and challenges
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
37
p
57
64
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.05.004
Blair
J.L.
Ticci
M.
2006
Serving Bay Area geologic hazard information in Google Earth KML; a network-link approach
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
87
no. 52
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN43A-0896, 11–15 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Bradley
E.S.
Roberts
D.A.
Dennison
P.E.
Green
R.O.
Eastwood
E.
Lundeen
S.R.
McCubbin
I.B.
Leifer
I.
2011
Google Earth and Fusion Tables in support of time-critical collaboration; Mapping the deepwater horizon oil spill with the AVIRIS airborne spectrometer
Earth Science Informatics
  v.
4
no. 4
p
169
179
doi:10.1007/s12145-011-0085-4
Chen
A.
Leptoukh
G.Z.
Kempler
S.
Lynnes
C.
Savtchenko
A.
Nadeau
D.
Farley
J.
2009
Visualization of A-Train vertical profiles using Google Earth
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
35
p
419
427
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.006
Clark
S.
2003
Following their footsteps: A travel guide and history of the 1775 secret expedition to capture Quebec
Shapleigh, Maine
Clark Books
123
p
Crosby
C.J.
2012
this volume
Lidar and Google Earth: Simplifying access to high-resolution topography data
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(03)
De Donatis
M.
Susini
S.
Foi
M.
2012
this volume
Geology from real field to 3D modeling and Google Earth virtual environments: Methods and goals from the Apennines (Furlo Gorge, Italy)
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(16)
De Paor
D.G.
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Marks
M.
Bailey
J.E.
2012
this volume
chapter 6, Geoscience applications of client/server scripts, Google Fusion Tables, and dynamic KML
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(06)
De Paor
D.G.
Hansen
V.L.
Dordevic
M.M.
2012
this volume
chapter 27, Google Venus
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(27)
Dolliver
H.A.S.
2012
this volume
Using Google Earth to teach geomorphology
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(32)
Dordevic
M.M.
2012
this volume
Designing interactive screen overlays to enhance effectiveness of Google Earth geoscience resources
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(07)
Dordevic
M.M.
Wild
S.C.
2012
this volume
Avatars and multi-student interactions in Google Earth–based virtual field experiences
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(22)
Eusden
J.D.
Jr.
Duvall
M.
Bryant
M.
2012
this volume
Google Earth mashup of the geology in the Presidential Range, New Hampshire: Linking real and virtual field trips for an introductory geology class
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(26)
Fisher
G.B.
Amos
C.B.
Bookhagen
B.
Burbank
D.W.
Godard
V.
2012
this volume
Channel widths, landslides, faults, and beyond: The new world order of high-spatial resolution Google Earth imagery in the study of earth surface processes
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(01)
Gobert
J.
Wild
S.C.
Rossi
L.
2012
this volume
Testing the effects of prior coursework and gender on geoscience learning with Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(35)
Gonzalez
H.
Halevy
A.
Jensen
C.S.
Langen
A.
Madhavan
J.
Shapley
R.
Shen
W.
2010
Google Fusion Tables
Data management, integration and collaboration in the cloud, SoCC'10, 10–11 June 2010, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, ACM 978-1-4503-0036-0/10/06
Google Inc.
2010
Google Crisis Response—Haiti earthquake
Google Inc.
2011
Google Earth Engine
http://earthengine.google.org/ (accessed April 2012)
Granshaw
F.D.
Duggan-Haas
D.
2012
this volume
Virtual field-work in geoscience teacher education: Issues, techniques, and models
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(20)
Guth
P.L.
2012
this volume
Automated export of GIS maps to Google Earth: Tool for research and teaching
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(12)
Hasbargen
L.E.
2012
this volume
A test of the three-point vector method to determine strike and dip utilizing digital aerial imagery and topography
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(14)
Habib
E.
Ma
Y.
Williams
D.
2012
this volume
Development of a web-based hydrologic education tool using Google Earth resources
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(33)
Hennessy
R.
Arnason
T.
Ratinen
I.
Rubensdotter
L.
2012
this volume
Google Earth geo-education resources: A transnational approach from Ireland, Iceland, Finland, and Norway
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(31)
Hennessey-Fiske
M.
2011
Google releases first satellite images of Japan after quake
Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2011
Hill
J.S.
Harrison
M.J.
2012
this volume
Terrain modification in Google Earth using SketchUp: An example from the Western Blue Ridge of Tennessee
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(18)
Hochstaedter
A.
Sullivan
D.
2012
this volume
Oceanography and Google Earth: Observing ocean processes with time animations and student-built ocean drifters
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(34)
Johnson
N.D.
Lang
N.P.
Zophy
K.T.
2011
Overcoming assessment problems in Google Earth–based assignments
Journal of Geoscience Education
  v.
59
p
99
105
doi:10.5408/1.3604822
Karabinos
P.
2012
this volume
Creating interactive 3-D block diagrams from geologic maps and cross-sections
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(17)
Lageson
D.R.
Larsen
M.C.
Lynn
H.B.
Treadway
W.A.
2012
this volume
Applications of Google Earth Pro to fracture and fault studies of Laramide anticlines in the Rocky Mountain foreland
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(15)
Lang
N.P.
Lang
K.T.
Camodeca
B.M.
2012
this volume
A geology-focused virtual field trip to Tenerife, Spain
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(23)
Lee
Tsan-Kuang
Guertin
L.
2012
this volume
Building an education game with the Google Earth application programming interface to enhance geographic literacy
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(29)
Muller
O.H.
2012
this volume
Moving New York State Geological Association guidebooks into Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(24)
Nunn
J.A.
Bentley
L.
2012
this volume
Visualization of spatial and temporal trends in Louisiana water usage using Google Fusion Tables
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(09)
Piatek
J.L.
Kairies Beatty
C.L.
Beatty
W.L.
Wizevich
M.C.
Steullet
A.
2012
this volume
Developing virtual field experiences for undergraduates with high-resolution panoramas (GigaPans) at multiple scales
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(21)
Potapov
E.
Hronusov
V.
2012
this volume
Extreme dynamic mapping: Animals map themselves on the “Cloud,”
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(10)
Rueger
B.F.
Beck
E.N
2012
this volume
Benedict Arnold's march to Quebec in 1775: An historical characterization using Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(25)
Shufeldt
O.P.
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
C.M.
2012
this volume
The new frontier of interactive, digital geologic maps: Google Earth–based multilevel maps of Virginia geology
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(11)
Simpson
C.
De Paor
D.G.
Beebe
M.R.
Strand
J.M.
2012
this volume
Transferring maps and data from pre-digital era theses to Google Earth: A case study from the Vredefort Dome, South Africa
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(13)
Smith
T.M.
Lakshmanan
V.
2011
Real-time, rapidly updating severe weather products for virtual globes
Computers & Geosciences
  v.
37
p
3
12
doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.03.023
Stewart
M.E.
Baldwin
K.
2012
this volume
Workshops, community outreach, and KML for visualization of marine resources in the Grenadine Islands
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(05)
Tewksbury
B.J.
Dokmak
A.A.K.
Tarabees
E.A.
Mansour
A.S.
2012
this volume
Google Earth and geologic research in remote regions of the developing world: An example from the Western Desert of Egypt
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(02)
Treves
R.
Bailey
J.E.
2012
this volume
Best practices on how to design Google Earth tours for education
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(28)
Treves
R.
Engelbrecht
P.
2011
User tests on Google Earth Tour comprehension
 
University of Southampton
10
p
Turner
A.
2008
Is Google Maps GIS?
Venzke
E.
Siebert
L.
Luhr
J.F.
2006
Smithsonian volcano data on Google Earth
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
87
no. 52
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN43A-0900, 11–15 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Wang
M.
Rodriguez-Gomez
M.I.
Aiken
C.L.V.
2012
this volume
Interacting with existing 3D photorealistic outcrop models on site and in the lab or classroom, facilitated with an iPad and a PC
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(19)
Wernecke
J.
2009
The KML handbook: Geographic visualization for the web
 
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
Addison-Wesley
368
p
Whitmeyer
S.J.
De Paor
D.G.
Daniels
J.
Nicoletti
J.
Rivera
M.
San-tangelo
B.
2008
A pyramid scheme for constructing geologic maps on geobrowsers
Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
  v.
89
no. 53
Fall Meeting Supplement, abstract IN41B-1140, 15–19 December, San Francisco, California, USA
Williams
C.M.
Baker
G.S.
Ault
B.A.
2012
this volume
Enhancing usability of near-surface geophysical data in archaeological surveys via Google Earth
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(04)
Zular
A.
Guedes
C.C.F.
Mendes
V.R.
Sawakuchi
A.O.
Giannini
P.C.F.
Tanaka
A.P.B.
Fornari
M.
Nascimento
D.R.
Jr.
2012
this volume
Geomorphological analysis of coastal depositional systems in SE Brazil aided by Google Earth coupled with the integration of chronological and sedimentological data by means of a Google Fusion Table
in
Whitmeyer
S.J.
Bailey
J.E.
De Paor
D.G.
Ornduff
T.
eds
Google Earth and Virtual Visualizations in Geoscience Education and Research
 
Geological Society of America Special Paper
492
doi:10.1130/2012.2492(08)

Related

Citing Books via

Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal