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Basaltic lavas of Nyos volcano (Cameroon) mostly contain mantle peridotite xenoliths consisting of spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites. Based on the trace-element patterns, especially rare earth element (REE) patterns, two groups of samples have been distinguished: group 1 samples are characterized by spoon-shaped REE patterns, and group 2 samples show light (L) REE–enriched patterns. Mineralogical characteristics together with major- and trace-element compositions point to a low degree of partial melting (less than 5%) and metasomatic processes. The latter mechanism explains in particular the LREE content of bulk rocks and clinopyroxenes and the occurrence of hydrous minerals in some samples. All the...

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