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Pore-water chemistry from the ICDP-USGS core hole in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure—Implications for paleohydrology, microbial habitat, and water resources

By
Ward E. Sanford
Ward E. Sanford
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 431, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Mary A. Voytek
Mary A. Voytek
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 430, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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David S. Powars
David S. Powars
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 926A, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Blair F. Jones
Blair F. Jones
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 431, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Isabelle M. Cozzarelli
Isabelle M. Cozzarelli
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 431, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Charles S. Cockell
Charles S. Cockell
Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space & Astronomical Research, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, MK7 6AA
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Robert P. Eganhouse
Robert P. Eganhouse
U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 431, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Published:
January 01, 2009

We investigated the groundwater system of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure by analyzing the pore-water chemistry in cores taken from a 1766-m-deep drill hole 10 km north of Cape Charles, Virginia. Pore water was extracted using high-speed centrifuges from over 100 cores sampled from a 1300 m section of the drill hole. The pore-water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, stable isotopes of water and sulfate, dissolved and total carbon, and bioavailable iron. The results reveal a broad transition between freshwater and saline water from 100 to 500 m depth in the postimpact sediment section, and an underlying synimpact section that is almost entirely filled with brine. The presence of brine in the lowermost postimpact section and the trend in dissolved chloride with depth suggest a transport process dominated by molecular diffusion and slow, compaction-driven, upward flow. Major ion results indicate residual effects of diagenesis from heating, and a pre-impact origin for the brine. High levels of dissolved organic carbon (6–95 mg/L) and the distribution of electron acceptors indicate an environment that may be favorable for microbial activity throughout the drilled section. The concentration and extent of the brine is much greater than had previously been observed, suggesting that its occurrence may be common in the inner crater. However, groundwater-flow conditions in the structure may reduce the saltwater-intrusion hazard associated with the brine.

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GSA Special Papers

The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Results from the Eyreville Core Holes

Gregory S. Gohn
Gregory S. Gohn
U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA
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Christian Koeberl
Christian Koeberl
Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, USA
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Kenneth G. Miller
Kenneth G. Miller
Museum für Naturkunde–Leibniz Institute at Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
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Wolf Uwe Reimold
Wolf Uwe Reimold
Museum für Naturkunde–Leibniz Institute at Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
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Geological Society of America
Volume
458
ISBN print:
9780813724584
Publication date:
January 01, 2009

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