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Comparison of clast frequency and size in the resurge deposits at the Chesapeake Bay impact structure (Eyreville A and Langley cores): Clues to the resurge process

By
Jens Ormö
Jens Ormö
Centro de Astrobiología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain
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Erik Sturkell
Erik Sturkell
Nordic Volcanological Center, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
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J. Wright Horton, Jr.
J. Wright Horton, Jr.
U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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David S. Powars
David S. Powars
U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Lucy E. Edwards
Lucy E. Edwards
U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, Virginia 20192, USA
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Published:
January 01, 2009

Collapse and inward slumping of unconsolidated sedimentary strata expanded the Chesapeake Bay impact structure far beyond its central basement crater. During crater collapse, sediment-loaded water surged back to fill the crater. Here, we analyze clast frequency and granulometry of these resurge deposits in one core hole from the outermost part of the collapsed zone (i.e., Langley) as well as a core hole from the moat of the basement crater (i.e., Eyreville A). Comparisons of clast provenance and flow dynamics show that at both locations, there is a clear change in clast frequency and size between a lower unit, which we interpret to be dominated by slumped material, and an upper, water-transported unit, i.e., resurge deposit. The contribution of material to the resurge deposit was primarily controlled by stripping and erosion. This includes entrainment of fallback ejecta and sediments eroded from the surrounding seafloor, found to be dominant at Langley, and slumped material that covered the annular trough and basement crater, found to be dominant at Eyreville. Eyreville shows a higher content of crystalline clasts than Langley. There is equivocal evidence for an anti-resurge from a collapsing central water plume or, alternatively, a second resurge pulse, as well as a transition into oscillating resurge. The resurge material shows more of a debris-flow–like transport compared to resurge deposits at some other marine target craters, where the ratio of sediment to water has been relatively low. This result is likely a consequence of the combination of easily disaggregated host sediments and a relatively shallow target water depth.

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GSA Special Papers

The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Results from the Eyreville Core Holes

Gregory S. Gohn
Gregory S. Gohn
U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA
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Christian Koeberl
Christian Koeberl
Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, USA
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Kenneth G. Miller
Kenneth G. Miller
Museum für Naturkunde–Leibniz Institute at Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
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Wolf Uwe Reimold
Wolf Uwe Reimold
Museum für Naturkunde–Leibniz Institute at Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
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Geological Society of America
Volume
458
ISBN print:
9780813724584
Publication date:
January 01, 2009

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