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Planning and implementation of astronaut observations and photography from lunar orbit during the Apollo program were based on two expectations: (1) orbiting astronauts would be able to add to our knowledge by describing lunar features from their unique vantage point, and, (2) as illustrated by the Gemini Earth-orbital missions, expertly obtained photographs would allow us to place detailed information from field exploration into a regional context. To achieve these goals, the astronauts had to be thoroughly familiar with concepts of lunar geology and intellectually prepared to note and document the unexpected. This required mission-specific training to add to their store...

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