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Misti volcano in southern Peru has a record of explosive eruptions and a nearby population of over 810,000, making it a hazardous volcano. The city center of Arequipa, Peru's second most populous city, is 15 km from the summit of Misti, and many neighborhoods are closer. As the population increases yearly, the urban boundary continues to move up the south side of the volcano. Many parts of the city are built upon the deposits from Misti's most recent Plinian eruption at ca. 2 ka. The 2 ka Plinian eruption (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 5) produced a 1.4 km3 tephra-fall...

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