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Water resurge into newly excavated impact craters causes both erosion and conspicuous graded deposits in those cases where the water is deep enough to overrun the elevated crater rim. We compare published information on resurge deposits from mainly the Lockne, Tvären, and Chesapeake Bay structures with new results from low-velocity impact experiments and numerical simulations. Notwithstanding the limitations of each of the analytical methods (observation, experiment, and simulation), we can visualize the resurge process for various initial impact-target configurations, for which one single method would have been insufficient. The focus is on the ways in which variations in impact angle and target water depth affect water-cavity collapse, the initiation and continuation of the resurge, its transformation into a central water plume, and subsequent antiresurge, as well as tsunami generation. We show that (1) the resurge at oblique impacts, as well as impacts into a target with a varied water depth, becomes strongly asymmetrical, which greatly influences the development of the central water plume and sediment deposition; (2) the resurge may cause a central peak–like debris cumulate at the location of the collapsing central water plume; (3) at relatively deep target waters, the resurge proper is eventually prevented from reaching the crater center by the force of the antiresurge; (4) the antiresurge is separated into an upper and a lower component; (5) the resurge from the deep-water side at an impact into water of varied depth may overcome the resurge from the shallow-water side and push it back out of the crater; and (6) contrary to rim-wave tsunamis, a collapse-wave tsunami requires deeper relative water depth than that of Lockne, the crater-forming impact event with the currently deepest known target water depth.

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