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Book Chapter

Offset archaeological relics in the western part of the Büyük Menderes graben (western Turkey) and their tectonic implications

By
Önder Yönlü
Önder Yönlü
Department of Geology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
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Erhan Altunel
Erhan Altunel
Department of Geology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
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Volkan Karabacak
Volkan Karabacak
Department of Geology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
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Serdar Akyüz
Serdar Akyüz
Department of Geology, İstanbul Technical University, 34469 İstanbul, Turkey
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Çağlar Yalçıner
Çağlar Yalçıner
Çan Vocational College, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17400 Çan, Çanakkale, Turkey
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Published:
October 01, 2010

The Büyük Menderes graben is one of the most important active tectonic structures of western Anatolia. The graben extends for a distance of ~150 km between the Denizli Basin in the east and the Aegean Sea in the west, where its trend changes to NE-SW. The main active faults are located along the northern margin of the graben, some of which have been reactivated in surface-rupturing earthquakes during the twentieth century and the historical period. Detailed investigations along the NE-SW–trending part of the Büyük Menderes graben showed that archaeological relics have been faulted by surface ruptures during the large historical earthquakes. The ancient city of Priene and an Ottoman bridge are located along the northwestern margin of the graben to the southwest of Söke and in Sazliköy, respectively. Field observations and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) studies at both sites show that faulting has a normal component with considerable right-lateral movement. Offset archaeological features at both Priene and the Ottoman bridge are evidence for the reactivation of the graben boundary faults in the past 2000 yr. At Priene, a N-S–trending street wall is offset by 21 cm vertically and 10 cm dextrally, the eastern wall of the gymnasium is offset by 8 cm vertically, and the floor blocks of the agora are displaced by 26 cm vertically and 13 cm dextrally. The Ottoman bridge displays 76 cm vertical and 43 cm dextral offset to the southeast, which probably occurred during the 1846 earthquake.

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GSA Special Papers

Ancient Earthquakes

Manuel Sintubin
Manuel Sintubin
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan, Leuven, Belgium
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Iain S. Stewart
Iain S. Stewart
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Fitzroy, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, UK
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Tina M. Niemi
Tina M. Niemi
Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
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Erhan Altunel
Erhan Altunel
Department of Geological Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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Geological Society of America
Volume
471
ISBN print:
9780813724713
Publication date:
October 01, 2010

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