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Distinguishing damages from two earthquakes—Archaeoseismology of a Crusader castle (Al-Marqab citadel, Syria)

By
Miklós Kázmér
Miklós Kázmér
Department of Palaeontology, Eötvös University, P.O. Box 120, H-1518 Budapest, Hungary
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Balázs Major
Balázs Major
Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Péter Pázmány Catholic University, Egyetem utca 1, H-2087 Piliscsaba, Hungary
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Published:
October 01, 2010

Damages from two major earthquakes are identified in medieval Al-Marqab citadel (Latin: Margat) in coastal Syria. Built by the Order of St. John (Hospitallers) in the twelfth–thirteenth centuries, the hilltop fortification has masonry walls made with and without mortar, using the opus caementum technology (Roman concrete). V-shaped and U-shaped failures, single-corner and symmetrical corner collapses, and in-plane shifts of ashlar masonry walls are identified and dated by historical and archaeological methods. The azimuth of displacement is NE-SW for the older damages of the Crusader period (A.D. 1170–1285), possibly related to the A.D. 1202 earthquake. A later, NW-SE displacement occurred during the Muslim period (post-1285). The 1202 earthquake produced at least VIII intensity on the MSK scale at Al-Marqab, which is higher than previously considered.

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Contents

GSA Special Papers

Ancient Earthquakes

Manuel Sintubin
Manuel Sintubin
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan, Leuven, Belgium
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Iain S. Stewart
Iain S. Stewart
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Fitzroy, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, UK
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Tina M. Niemi
Tina M. Niemi
Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
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Erhan Altunel
Erhan Altunel
Department of Geological Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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Geological Society of America
Volume
471
ISBN print:
9780813724713
Publication date:
October 01, 2010

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