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Assessment of seismically induced damage using LIDAR: The ancient city of Pınara (SW Turkey) as a case study

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Barış Yerli
Barış Yerli
Institute for Geology, Mineralogy, and Geophysics, Ruhr University, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44801, Bochum, Germany
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Johan ten Veen
Johan ten Veen
Institute for Geology, Mineralogy, and Geophysics, Ruhr University, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44801, Bochum, Germany
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Manuel Sintubin
Manuel Sintubin
Geodynamics & Geofluids Research Group, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
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Volkan Karabacak
Volkan Karabacak
Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Osman Gazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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C. Çağlar Yalçıner
C. Çağlar Yalçıner
Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Osman Gazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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Erhan Altunel
Erhan Altunel
Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Osman Gazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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Published:
October 01, 2010

Seismic-related damages of archaeological structures play an important role in increasing our knowledge about the timing and magnitudes of historical earthquakes. Although quantitative data should form the basis of objective archaeoseismological methods, most studies still do not rely on such methods. Ground-based LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is a promising, rather new, scanning technology that determines spatial position of an object or surface and provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) digital data. Using LIDAR, we mapped the damage and overall attitude of a Roman theater in the ancient Lycian city of Pinara (500 B.C.–A.D. 900), located at a faulted margin of the Eşen Basin (SW Turkey). An average 0.81°NW tilt of the 20 seating rows could be computed from the LIDAR data. Conventional compass readings of these seating rows did not provide the same results because errors involved with this method are generally >2°. The tilt direction appears perpendicular to the NE-trending basin-margin fault, suggesting that fault-block rotation is the most likely mechanism to have induced the systematic tilt of the theater. The estimated 4 m offset on this normal fault should be seen as a rough estimate of the total displacement and was likely produced by several (more than one) earthquakes with magnitudes of M = 6–6.8. This is consistent with historical records that mention several large earthquakes during the Roman period.

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GSA Special Papers

Ancient Earthquakes

Manuel Sintubin
Manuel Sintubin
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan, Leuven, Belgium
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Iain S. Stewart
Iain S. Stewart
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Fitzroy, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, UK
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Tina M. Niemi
Tina M. Niemi
Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
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Erhan Altunel
Erhan Altunel
Department of Geological Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey
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Geological Society of America
Volume
471
ISBN print:
9780813724713
Publication date:
October 01, 2010

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