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Geologic mapping of the Colima volcanic complex (Mexico) and implications for hazard assessment

By
A. Cortés
A. Cortés
Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanología, Universidad de Colima, 28045, Colima, Col., México
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V.H. Garduño
V.H. Garduño
Departamento de Geología y Mineralogía, Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edf. “U” Cd. Universitaria, 58030, Morelia, Mexico
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J.L. Macías
J.L. Macías
Departamento de Vulcanología, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510, D.F., México
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C. Navarro-Ochoa
C. Navarro-Ochoa
Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanología, Universidad de Colima, 28045, Colima, Col., México
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J.C. Komorowski
J.C. Komorowski
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 4 Place Jussieu, B89, Equipe de Volcanologie, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
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R. Saucedo
R. Saucedo
Instituto de Geología/Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Manuel Nava No. 5, Zona Universitaria 78240, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México
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J.C. Gavilanes
J.C. Gavilanes
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo # 340, Col. Villas San Sebastián, C.P. 28045, México
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Published:
April 01, 2010

During the past 15 yr, volcanological studies in Mexico have been mostly focused on the pyroclastic stratigraphy and petrologic evolution of the volcanoes, with very little attention paid to detailed mapping of volcanic areas. In this study, we present a geologic map of the Colima volcanic complex, which covers ~3780 km2. The Colima volcanic complex is made of El Cántaro, Nevado de Colima, Paleofuego, and Colima volcanoes, totaling 422 km3 in volume. The activity of the Colima volcanic complex started at El Cántaro with the emission of lava flows and domes ca. 1.7 Ma. About 0.53 Ma, 15 km southward, the formation of Nevado began with the emission of lava flows. Nevado produced at least four collapses that generated debris avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic-flow deposits. During late Pleistocene (>>38,500 yr B.P.), the formation of Paleofuego began 5 km further south with the emission of lava flows. Paleofuego collapsed at least five times, producing debris avalanches and pyroclastic-flow deposits. The last collapse of Paleofuego, at 2505 yr B.P., produced a 5-km-wide caldera, inside of which grew Colima volcano. Colima is the most active volcano in Mexico, with 45 eruptions during the past 426 yr, representing a potential hazard for the surrounding population of ~0.9 million people. From the geological mapping, it is clear that volcanic activity and collapses of the Colima volcanic complex have been controlled by the active Tamazula fault, which generated the NE-SW Alceseca-Atenquique graben.

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Contents

GSA Special Papers

Stratigraphy and Geology of Volcanic Areas

Gianluca Groppelli
Gianluca Groppelli
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, Sezione di Milano, Milano, Italy
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Lothar Viereck-Goette
Lothar Viereck-Goette
Institut für Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany
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Geological Society of America
Volume
464
ISBN print:
9780813724645
Publication date:
April 01, 2010

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