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We estimated the timing of paleodrainage connections in the Colorado River Basin using mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence divergences among populations of the speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus. Cytochrome b and ND4L sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood methods to estimate phylogenetic branch lengths, which were calibrated to geological time with a fossil age estimate. We assume that heterogeneity in rate of evolution of mitochondrial DNA is caused in part by differences in body size, temperature, and correlated life-history traits; therefore, branch lengths are used directly to calculate rates of nucleotide substitution and ages of nodes on the phylogenetic tree....

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