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Extensive glacigenic suites of sediments were deposited throughout Arabia during the late Paleozoic glaciation of Gondwana. In the Sultanate of Oman, the glacigenic Moscovian to Sakmarian Al Khlata Formation directly overlies the widespread “Hercynian” unconformity and is succeeded by the postglacial Gharif Formation, indicating that intermittent glacial conditions in the Arabian Peninsula lasted at least 15 m.y., and possibly up to 30 m.y. Sedimentological and stratigraphic relationships are complex, and rapidly evolving lithofacies associations are often difficult to correlate. Palynological dating has proven extremely beneficial in facilitating correlation in the subsurface and has permitted the development of a regional stratigraphic framework and tentative correlation with coeval glacigenic sequences of Saudi Arabia. A lower association of sand-dominated proglacial braided fluvial and deltaic facies that pass laterally into glaciolacustrine facies is common to both Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is overlain by an upper association that was deposited during widespread glaciolacustrine conditions related to the terminal decline of Gondwanan ice in Arabia. The postglacial transition is marked by the onset of continental to marginal-marine red-bed and carbonate deposition.

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