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Three glacial episodes are identified in Upper Devonian and Mississippian strata in South America using sedimentologic, stratigraphic, paleontological, borehole, and outcrop data. The first glacial episode is of late Famennian (“Strunian”) age and is interpreted from strata in basins of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, where ice sheets and alpine glaciers reached coastal and marine settings. Biostratigraphically, these strata correspond to the Retispora lepidophyta–Indotriradites explanata or LE Zone and the Retispora lepidophyta–Verrucosisporites nitidus (LN) spore zones of Western Europe. The second glacial episode occurred during the late middle to early late Tournaisian and is recorded in the subsurface of the Solimões...

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