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The Andaman Islands are part of the Andaman-Nicobar Ridge, an accretionary complex that forms part of the outer-arc ridge of the Sunda subduction zone. The Tertiary rocks exposed on the Andaman Islands preserve a record of the tectonic evolution of the surrounding region, including the evolution and closure of the Tethys Ocean. Some of the Paleogene sediments on Andaman may represent an offscraped part of the early Bengal Fan. Through field and petrographic observations, and use of a number of isotopic tracers, new age and provenance constraints are placed on the key Paleogene formations exposed on South Andaman. A paucity of biostratigraphic data poorly define sediment depositional ages. Constraints on timing of deposition obtained by dating detrital minerals for the Mithakhari Group indicate sedimentation after 60 Ma, possibly younger than 40 Ma. A better constraint is obtained for the Andaman Flysch Formation, which was deposited between 30 and 20 Ma, based on Ar-Ar ages of the youngest detrital muscovites at ca. 30 Ma and thermal history modeling of apatite fission-track and U-Th/He data. The latter record sediment burial and inversion (uplift) at ca. 20 Ma. In terms of sediment sources the Mithakhari Group shows a predominantly arc-derived composition, with a very subordinate contribution from the continental margin to the east of the arc. The Oligocene Andaman Flysch at Corbyn's Cove is dominated by recycled orogenic sources, but it also contains a subordinate arc-derived contribution. It is likely that the sources of the Andaman Flysch included rocks from Myanmar affected by India-Asia collision. Any contribution of material from the nascent Himalayas must have been minor. Nd isotope data discount any major input from cratonic Greater India sources.

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