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We summarize recent developments of nuclear resonant spectroscopy methods, such as nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and their uses for the geophysical sciences. The inelastic method provides specific vibrational information, for example, the phonon density of states, and, in combination with compression data, it permits the determination of sound velocities and Grüneisen parameters under high pressure and high temperature. The Mössbauer method provides hyperfine interactions between the resonant nucleus and electronic environment, such as isomer shifts, quadrupole splittings, and magnetic fields, which provide important information on valence, spin state, and magnetic ordering. Both methods use a nuclear resonant isotope as a probe and can be applied under high pressure and high temperature. The physical mechanism of nuclear resonant scattering and the specifics in applications to Earth materials are presented with reference to several high-pressure studies on iron-bearing compounds.

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