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After an overview of the most recent results of static high-pressure and high-temperature experiments, we present a review of the mineralogy of shocked meteorites. The high-pressure minerals in these rocks result either from solid-state reactions or from the crystallization of melts at high pressures. Comparisons of naturally shocked samples with samples processed in dynamic experiments must be made with extreme caution. The durations of the equilibrium shock pressure experienced by meteorites can vary over at least three orders of magnitude (10−2 s to 10 s), and they lie within the lower range of the duration of static experiments conducted in diamond anvil cells or multianvil apparatus. We emphasize that dynamic experiments up to 130 GPa have never produced any reconstructive solid-state phase transition or liquidus high-pressure minerals that offer a reliable calibration of the continuum of shock pressures and temperatures. The solid-state transformations observed in shocked meteorites are in many cases incomplete and provide only insights into the initial stages of high-pressure phase transitions, crystallization, and chemical interdiffusion. In contrast, the natural high-pressure species crystallized from silicate liquids at high pressures and temperatures provide more precise information on the pressures and temperatures reached during a shock event on the parental asteroid. The kinetics of phase transitions and diffusion of trace elements permit meaningful estimates of the pressure, temperature, and shock durations. We also present information on new dense minerals (C and TiO2) in terrestrial shocked rocks in impact craters and discuss their relevance to a reliable estimate of pressure and temperature conditions.

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