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The Sierra Madre Occidental is the result of Cretaceous-Cenozoic magmatic and tectonic episodes related to the subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America and to the opening of the Gulf of California. The stratigraphy of the Sierra Madre Occidental consists of five main igneous complexes: (1) Late Cretaceous to Paleocene plutonic and volcanic rocks; (2) Eocene andesites and lesser rhyolites, traditionally grouped into the so-called Lower Volcanic Complex; (3) silicic ignimbrites mainly emplaced during two pulses in the Oligocene (ca. 32–28 Ma) and Early Miocene (ca. 24–20 Ma), and grouped into the “Upper Volcanic Supergroup”; (4) transitional basaltic-andesitic lavas...

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