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Coastline changes are the result of the interaction between geosystems and climate. Vertical isostatic movement of Earth's crust competes with the eustatic sea-level variation controlled by changing climatic conditions. The resulting relative sea-level variation has a vital impact on the anthroposphere along the sea coast. This interrelation can be studied in an exceptional manner on the southern Baltic Sea. Here, isostasy and eustasy have shaped the picture of the coastal areas since the last glaciation. The northern Scandinavian part has been uplifting constantly since the last deglaciation, causing a regression of the sea. In contrast, in the south, the Littorina transgression has initiated land loss due to the glacio-isostatically sinking coast. Human populations living along the coast since Mesolithic time have reacted by relocating settlements. This migration is well documented and preserved at the Wismar Bight, Germany, by submarine archaeological remnants. Dates of samples from ancient coastlines, supported by geostatistical methods to estimate sediment transport processes, allow us to model the paleogeographic settings on a local scale using maps. By projecting the investigated processes into the future, scenarios of predicted coastline evolution can be modeled. Extrapolated isostatic measurements and sea-level data derived from IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenario A for the next 800 yr are superimposed in order to estimate areas that may sink below the sea level.

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