Skip to Main Content
Book Chapter

Geological evolution of the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, México-Guatemala

By
Armando García-Palomo
Armando García-Palomo
Departamento de Geología Regional, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México
Search for other works by this author on:
José Luis Macías
José Luis Macías
Departamento de Vulcanología, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México
Search for other works by this author on:
José Luis Arce
José Luis Arce
Departamento de Geología Regional, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México
Search for other works by this author on:
Juan Carlos Mora
Juan Carlos Mora
Departamento de Vulcanología, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México
Search for other works by this author on:
Simon Hughes
Simon Hughes
Department of Geology, State University of New York, 876 Natural Science Complex, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA
Search for other works by this author on:
Ricardo Saucedo
Ricardo Saucedo
Departamento de Vulcanología, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Avenida Dr. Manuel Nava No. 5, 10 Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosí 78240, México
Search for other works by this author on:
Juan Manuel Espíndola
Juan Manuel Espíndola
Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México
Search for other works by this author on:
Rudiger Escobar
Rudiger Escobar
Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Avenida Hincapié, 21-72 Zona 1, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala
Search for other works by this author on:
Paul Layer
Paul Layer
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7320, USA
Search for other works by this author on:
Published:
January 01, 2006

The Tacaná Volcanic Complex represents the northernmost active volcano of the Central American Volcanic Arc. The genesis of this volcanic chain is related to the subduction of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate. The Tacaná Volcanic Complex is influenced by an important tectonic structure as it lies south of the active left-lateral strike-slip Motozintla fault related to the Motagua-Polochic fault zone. The geological evolution of the Tacaná Volcanic Complex and surrounding areas is grouped into six major sequences dating from the Mesozoic to Recent. The oldest basement rocks are Mesozoic schists and gneisses of low-grade metamorphism. These rocks are intruded by Tertiary granites, granodiorites, and tonalites ranging in age from 12 to 39 Ma, apparently separated by a gap of 9 m.y. The first intrusive phase occurred during late Eocene to early Oligocene, and the second during early to middle Miocene. These rocks are overlain by deposits from the Calderas San Rafael (ca. 2 Ma), Chanjale (ca. 1 Ma), and Sibinal (unknown age), grouped under the name Chanjale–San Rafael Sequence, of late Pliocene–Pleistocene age. The activity of these calderas produced thick block-and-ash flows, ignimbrites, lavas, and debris flows. The Tacaná Volcanic Complex began its formation during the late Pleistocene, nested in the preexisting San Rafael Caldera. The Tacaná Volcanic Complex formed through the emplacement of four volcanic centers. The first, Chichuj volcano, was formed by andesitic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, after which it was destroyed by the collapse of the edifice. The second, Tacaná volcano, formed through the emission of basaltic-andesite lava flows, as well as andesitic and dacitic domes that produced extensive block-and-ash flows ∼38,000, 28,000, and 16,000 yr B.P. The Plan de las Ardillas structure (the third volcanic center) consists of an andesitic dome with two lava flows emplaced on the high slope of the Tacaná ∼30,000 yr B.P. Finally, the San Antonio volcanic center was built through the emission of lava flows, andesitic and dacitic domes, and it was destroyed by a Peléan eruption at 1950 yr B.P. that produced a block-and-ash flow deposit. The Tacaná Volcanic Complex was emplaced along a NE-SW trend beginning with Chichuj, followed by Tacaná, Las Ardillas, and San Antonio. This direction is roughly the same as the NE-SW Tacaná graben (as proposed in this work), together with other faults and fractures exposed in the region. The rocks of the Chanjale-San Rafael Sequence and the Tacaná Volcanic Complex have a calc-alkaline signature with medium K contents, negative anomalies of Nb, Ti, and P, and enrichment in light rare earth elements, typical of subduction zones.

You do not currently have access to this article.

Figures & Tables

Contents

GSA Special Papers

Volcanic Hazards in Central America

William I. Rose
William I. Rose
Search for other works by this author on:
Gregg J.S. Bluth
Gregg J.S. Bluth
Search for other works by this author on:
Michael J. Carr
Michael J. Carr
Search for other works by this author on:
John W. Ewert
John W. Ewert
Search for other works by this author on:
Lina C. Patino
Lina C. Patino
Search for other works by this author on:
James W. Vallance
James W. Vallance
Search for other works by this author on:
Geological Society of America
Volume
412
ISBN print:
9780813724126
Publication date:
January 01, 2006

References

Related

Citing Books via

Related Articles
Related Book Content
Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal