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The Agrio (37°51′S, 70°26′W), Vilú Mallín (37°28′S, 70°45′W), Trohunco (37°18′S, 71°01′W), Domuyo (36°38′S, 70°26′W), and Los Cardos–Centinela (37°06′S, 70°52′W) volcanic complexes in Argentina are the principal Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene volcanic complexes east of the Andean Main Cordillera and the modern Southern volcanic zone arc front. These complexes are part of the Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene volcanic arc that was on the eastern flank of the Andes at that time. The volcanic rocks provide constraints on the age and style of Neogene deformation in the modern backarc between 36°30′ and 38°S. New and published K-Ar ages along with stratigraphic and structural relations show that the region was affected by a late Miocene compressional deformation between 9 and 6.8 Ma. A more heterogeneous picture emerges for younger deformation in the region. The most important structures include a N-NW–trending contractional fault system that connects the Trohunco and Los Cardos–Centinela complex, and a NE-trending extensional fault system along which the Agrio caldera, Vilú Mallín, and Domuyo volcanic complexes are aligned. Overall, the backarc in this region was affected by compression in the late Miocene and extensional collapse and transpressional deformation due to strain partitioning in the late Pliocene to Quaternary.

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