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Deep seismic images of the Southern Andes

By
X. Yuan
X. Yuan
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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G. Asch
G. Asch
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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K. Bataille
K. Bataille
Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
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G. Bock
G. Bock
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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M. Bohm
M. Bohm
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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H. Echtler
H. Echtler
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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R. Kind
R. Kind
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany, and Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstraße 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany
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O. Oncken
O. Oncken
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany, and Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstraße 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany
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I. Wölbern
I. Wölbern
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
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Published:
January 01, 2006

Teleseismic earthquakes recorded within the ISSA (Integrated Seismological Experiment in the Southern Andes) temporary seismic experiment in the Southern Andes between 36° and 40°S latitude have been used to construct receiver function images of the crust and upper mantle. The oceanic Moho of the subducted Nazca plate is observed down to a depth of ∼100 km, corresponding well with the Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and wide-angle seismic reflections. Beneath the volcanic arc, the slab begins to be invisible with P-to-S converted waves, implying the completion of the gabbroeclogite transformation in the oceanic crust at that depth. The continental Moho has been imaged at depth of ∼40 km beneath the main cordillera and shallows toward the eastern end of the profile beneath the Neuquén Basin to ∼35 km depth. Beneath the Loncopué graben, the Moho is locally uplifted to 30 km depth, possibly resulting from the backarc spreading beginning in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. An anomalously high Poisson's ratio beneath the volcanic arc may indicate partial melting in the upper-plate crust.

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GSA Special Papers

Evolution of an Andean Margin: A Tectonic and Magmatic View from the Andes to the Neuque´n Basin (35°-39°S lat)

Suzanne Mahlburg Kay
Suzanne Mahlburg Kay
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Victor A. Ramos
Victor A. Ramos
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Geological Society of America
Volume
407
ISBN print:
9780813724072
Publication date:
January 01, 2006

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