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This paper describes some new archaeological findings of settlements around the Dead Sea's shores in the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman periods (second century B.C. to first century A.D.). Evidence is presented for the level of the Dead Sea (∼-395 m) in that period. The settlement pattern of the region sheds light on the level of the Dead Sea in various periods and on the intensive use of the land by the occupants of the sea's shoreline in antiquity. Special attention is paid to two anchorages of this period, Rujm el-Bahr at the northern end of the Dead Sea and Khirbet Mazin on the western shore, and to the fortified roadside station of Qasr et-Turabeh on the western shore. These sites provide important evidence of the lake level at the time of their existence.

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