Crustal control on the redox state of granitoid magmas: tectonic implications from the granitoid and metallogenic provinces in the circum-Japan Sea Region
K. Sato, S. V. Kovalenko, N. P. Romanovsky, M. Nedachi, N. V. Berdnikov, T. Ishihara, 2004. "Crustal control on the redox state of granitoid magmas: tectonic implications from the granitoid and metallogenic provinces in the circum-Japan Sea Region", The Fifth Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks, S. Ishihara, W.E. Stephens, S.L. Harley, M. Arima, T. Nakajima
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Felsic magmatism has occurred over a large region of East Asia since Jurassic times and has provided important mineral resources such as tin, tungsten, base metals and gold. The circum-Japan Sea region preserves various geological records of active continental margins, including Jurassic to Early Tertiary magmatic arcs and subduction zones and pre-Jurassic continental basements, which were separated by the opening of the Japan Sea during the Miocene. The felsic magmatism in this region shows a wide variation in terms of redox state and related mineralisation, encompassing east-west contrasts around the Pacific Ocean. A review of granitoids and associated ore deposits in this region indicates that the character of the crust, sedimentary versus igneous, is an essential factor to control the redox state, and a tectonic setting may be an additional factor in some cases.
The reduced-type granitoids, characterised by tin mineralisation, were generated in carbon-bearing sedimentary crust which was composed mainly of accretionary complex material and not influenced by previous magmatism. Involvement of sedimentary materials is corroborated by oxygen, sulphur and strontium isotope data. The oxidised-type granitoids, characterised by gold or molybdenum mineralisation, were generated in igneous crust which was depleted in reducing agents as a result of previous magmatism. Granitoid magmatism in a given area tends to become more oxidised with time.
Jurassic accretionary complexes in East Asia are thought to have been largely displaced from the original place of accretion and stacked up against the northeastern margin in the Khingan and Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This region, dominated by sedimentary crust, was subsequently subjected ot Cretaceous felsic magmatism and converted to a large province of reduced-type granitoids and tin-tungsten mineralisation. Diverse geodynamic processes, including the change of the arc-trench system, the creation and collapse of the back-arc basin and the collision of continents, may have prepared many favourable sites for the generation of reduced-type granitoids in northeast Asia. These processes may have resulted in a remarkable contrast with the Pacific margin of North America, where repeated arc magmatism during the Mesozoic formed granitoid batholiths of the oxidised-type.
The granitoid types may also be controlled by the tectonic setting and mode of magma emplacement. In the northern Kitakami area of Northeast Japan, Early Cretaceous episodic magmatism occurred in a Jurassic accretionary complex, and formed the oxidised-type granitoids accompanied by submarine bimodal volcanism associated with kuroko mineralisation. Granitoids of fissure-filling type emplaced under extensional environments may be oxidised, irrespective of basement geology, because of insignificant crustal input.