Shunso Ishihara, 2004. "The redox state of granitoids relative to tectonic setting and earth history: The magnetite-ilmenite series 30 years later", The Fifth Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks, S. Ishihara, W.E. Stephens, S.L. Harley, M. Arima, T. Nakajima
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The redox state variation of orogenic granitoids along convergent plate margins is examined in the Phanerozoic Circum-Pacific Belt and in some Cryptozoic terranes. The Phanerozoic granitoids of the NW and NE Pacific Rims can be divided into reduced ilmenite series occurring in the accretionary terranes with compressional tectonic setting, and oxidised magnetite series intruding crystalline basements under extensional to intermediate regional stress regime. The ilmenite-series granitoids have negative but the magnetite series have positive δ34S values, which show a positive correlation with magnetic susceptibility of the granitoids. The negative δ34S sulphur originated in biogenic sulphur from accreted pelitic sediments and positive δ34S values show that sulphate sulphur migrated from seawater through subduction processes. The whole rock δ18O values are higher than 8 permil in the ilmenite series, but lower than 8 permil in the magnetite series, and as a whole show negative correlation with the magnetic susceptibility of the granitoids. The higher δ18O values reflect those of accreted sediments, whilst the lower δ18O values represent magmatic values of an oxidised mafic protolith at depth.
The predominance of ilmenite-series granitoids of the NW Pacific rim can be explained by well-developed accretionary terranes in which mafic magmas from depth mingled with felsic magmas from the accretionary complex to form granodioritic magmas, whilst that of magnetite-series granitoids is postulated to be oxidised igneous sources for the magma generation and an extensional and/or intermediate tectonic setting for the magma ascent. The absence of the accretionary wedges by tectonic erosion and/or no fore-arc sedimentation also helped to form magnetite-series granitoids. Potassic granitoids are generally of oxidised type. A-type granites in late orogenic environments also belong to the magnetite series. Adakitic high-Sr/Y granitoids are oxidised in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic but are reduced in the Archaean TTG, reflecting the redox state of the then-current sea-floor environment. The oldest magnetite-series granite so far known is the 3105 Ma-old biotite granite of the Nelspruit batholith, South Africa.