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Table 19  1. Earth temperatures in the United States  281 
  2. Temperatures in foreign wells and mines  286 
  3. Temperature gradient, conductivity, and heat flow in South Africa  291 
  4. Heat flow in Great Britain  292 
  5. Maximum observed temperatures of lava at volcanic vents  292 
  Contents   
    Page 
Table 19  1. Earth temperatures in the United States  281 
  2. Temperatures in foreign wells and mines  286 
  3. Temperature gradient, conductivity, and heat flow in South Africa  291 
  4. Heat flow in Great Britain  292 
  5. Maximum observed temperatures of lava at volcanic vents  292 

The tables in this section are based on those of Van Orstrand [1]; data which have appeared since the preparation of Van Orstrand’s tables are inserted where possible [2, 3, 4], or are presented as separate tables [5, 6], The observations of temperature in the mines, deep wells, and bore holes selected by Van Orstrand have been reduced by the method of least squares to equations of the form,  
T = a + b x
where T is the temperature (°C.) at the depth x kilometers. For observations made in the United States, this reduction has been made for three ranges of depth: from 30.5 to 305 meters (100 to 1000 feet), from 30.5 meters to the deepest observation, and from 610 meters (2000 feet) to the deepest observation. These intervals will only accidentally bear any relation to the geological structure or stratigraphy. The constant a is the extrapolated surface soil temperature and is generally within a few degrees of the mean annual air temperature. The tabulated values of a are for the range, 30.5 to 305 meters; the values of a for the other ranges of depth, except in a few instances, are within less than 5 degrees of this value. The coefficient 6 is the mean . . .
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