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Table 10  1. Viscosity of certain mineral and rock glasses  133 
  2. Viscosity in the system orthoclase-albite  136 
  3. Viscosity in the system diopside-albite-anorthite  136 
  4. Viscosity computed from field measurements  136 
  5. Effect of pressure upon viscosity  137 
  Contents   
    Page 
Table 10  1. Viscosity of certain mineral and rock glasses  133 
  2. Viscosity in the system orthoclase-albite  136 
  3. Viscosity in the system diopside-albite-anorthite  136 
  4. Viscosity computed from field measurements  136 
  5. Effect of pressure upon viscosity  137 

According to Newton’s law of fluid friction, the tangential or shearing stress in a liquid in motion is proportional to the rate of change, with time, of the angle of shear. Real liquids may be divided into two categories: “Newtonian” or “viscous” liquids, for which the factor of proportionality, the “viscosity,” is independent of the “rate of shear”; and “non-Newtonian” liquids, for which the factor depends upon this rate. The “Newtonian” behavior of many ordinary liquids, and of some glasses, has been verified for considerable ranges of shear rate. “Non-Newtonian” behavior has been observed for such materials as certain colloidal solutions, asphalt, and other bituminous products; no single value of “viscosity” is sufficient to describe the flow of such materials. (See also Section 9.) If the stress is measured in dynes × cm.−2, and the rate of shear in radians × sec.−1, the viscosity will be given in dyne × sec. × cm.−2 or the equivalent unit, gram × sec.−1 × cm. −1 This unit is called the poise and is used in the tables in this section.

The viscosity of a given material depends upon the pressure and temperature. Other factors of great importance for geological applications remain to be investigated, such as the effect of dissolved gases . . .

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