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  Contents   
    Page 
Table 9  1. Standard crushing strengths of rocks  116 
  2. Critical data of translation gliding  117 
  3. Critical data of twin-gliding  120 
  4. Tests of unconsolidated sand  122 
  5. Strength of rocks confined in steel jackets  122 
  6. Short-time compressive strength of unjacketed materials with confining pressure of kerosene  123 
  7. Resistance to shearing under high confining pressure  126 
  8. Creep of certain materials  129 
  9. Creep tests of wet alabaster at different stresses  129 
  Illustrations   
    Page 
Figure  1. Tresca’s apparatus  110 
  2. Adams’ apparatus  111 
  3. Schematic diagram of Griggs’ high-pressure apparatus  112 
  4. Bridgman’s shearing apparatus  113 
  5. Karman’s stress-strain diagram of jacketed marble tested in compression under confining pressure  124 
  6. Böker’s stress-strain diagrams of jacketed marble tested in tension under confining pressure  125 
  7. Griggs’ stress-strain diagrams for unjacketed Solenhofen limestone  130 
  8. Creep curves of alabaster  130 
  Contents   
    Page 
Table 9  1. Standard crushing strengths of rocks  116 
  2. Critical data of translation gliding  117 
  3. Critical data of twin-gliding  120 
  4. Tests of unconsolidated sand  122 
  5. Strength of rocks confined in steel jackets  122 
  6. Short-time compressive strength of unjacketed materials with confining pressure of kerosene  123 
  7. Resistance to shearing under high confining pressure  126 
  8. Creep of certain materials  129 
  9. Creep tests of wet alabaster at different stresses  129 
  Illustrations   
    Page 
Figure  1. Tresca’s apparatus  110 
  2. Adams’ apparatus  111 
  3. Schematic diagram of Griggs’ high-pressure apparatus  112 
  4. Bridgman’s shearing apparatus  113 
  5. Karman’s stress-strain diagram of jacketed marble tested in compression under confining pressure  124 
  6. Böker’s stress-strain diagrams of jacketed marble tested in tension under confining pressure  125 
  7. Griggs’ stress-strain diagrams for unjacketed Solenhofen limestone  130 
  8. Creep curves of alabaster  130 

In normal laboratory tests or in building applications most rocks are brittle rather than plastic and possess a well-defined strength which is independent of time or temperature within the usual limits of observations. This behavior has led to common acceptance of the concepts of “elastic limit” and “strength” of rocks, and these terms have been used frequently in reference to the behavior of rocks deep in the earth’s crust with the tacit assumption that such concepts apply under conditions of earth deformation without great change in form.

On the other hand, geological observations provide abundant evidence that rocks have exhibited a high degree of plasticity in . . .

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