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Phase equilibrium constraints on the viscosity of silicic magmas II: implications for mafic-silicic mixing processes

By
Bruno Scaillet
Bruno Scaillet
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Alan Whittington
Alan Whittington
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Caroline Martel
Caroline Martel
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Michel Pichavant
Michel Pichavant
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François Holtz
François Holtz
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Published:
January 01, 2000

Isobaric crystallisation paths obtained from phase equilibrium experiments show that, whereas in rhyolitic compositions melt fraction trends are distinctly eutectic, dacitic and more mafic compositions have their crystallinities linearly correlated with temperatures. As a consequence, the viscosities of the latter continuously increase on cooling, whereas for the former they remain constant or even decrease during 80% of the crystallisation interval, which opens new perspectives for the fluid dynamical modelling of felsic magma chambers. Given the typical dyke widths observed for basaltic magmas, results of analogue modelling predict that injection of mafic magmas into crystallising intermediate to silicic plutons under pre-eruption conditions cannot yield homogeneous composition. Homogenisation can occur, however, if injection takes place in the early stages of magmatic evolution (i.e. at near liquidus conditions) but only in magmas of dacitic or more mafic composition. More generally, the potential for efficient mixing between silicic and mafic magmas sharing large interfaces at upper crustal levels is greater for dry basalts than for wet ones. At the other extreme, small mafic enclaves found in many granitoids behave essentially as rigid objects during a substantial part of the crystallisation interval of the host magmas, which implies that finite strain analyses carried out on such markers can give only a minimum estimate of the total amount of strain experienced by the host pluton. Mafic enclaves carried by granitic magmas behave as passive markers only at near solidus conditions, typically when the host granitic magma shows near-solid behaviour. Thus they cannot be used as fossil indicators of direction of magmatic flow.

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GSA Special Papers

The Fourth Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks

Bernard Barbarin
Bernard Barbarin
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William Edryd Stephens
William Edryd Stephens
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Bernard Bonin
Bernard Bonin
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Jean-Luc Bouchez
Jean-Luc Bouchez
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David Barrie Clarke
David Barrie Clarke
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Michel Cuney
Michel Cuney
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Hervé Martin
Hervé Martin
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Geological Society of America
Volume
350
ISBN print:
9780813723501
Publication date:
January 01, 2000

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