Fertility of metapelites and metagraywackes during leucogranite generation: an example from the Black Hills, U.S.A.
Peter I. Nabelek, Cindy D. Bartlett, 2000. "Fertility of metapelites and metagraywackes during leucogranite generation: an example from the Black Hills, U.S.A.", The Fourth Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks, Bernard Barbarin, William Edryd Stephens, Bernard Bonin, Jean-Luc Bouchez, David Barrie Clarke, Michel Cuney, Hervé Martin
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In order to elucidate how mineralogy and composition of crustal sources influences production of leucogranite magmas, we modelled the potential fertility of a sequence of metapelites and metagraywackes from the Black Hills, South Dakota, U.S.A., using a least-squares mixing approach. Rocks analogous to the Black Hills schists were the sources of the Harney Peak leucogranite. Both muscovite and biotite fluid-absent melting reactions (MM and BM, respectively) were investigated. Using the Harney Peak Granite composition as the melt analogue and mineral compositions from the schists for mixing calculations, it is shown that MM of metapelites would lead to highly variable residue mineralogy in the investigated samples. The average residue includes 36 wt.% biotite, 32 wt.% quartz, 12wt.% plagioclase, 8 wt.% K-feldspar, 9 wt.% sillimanite and 2 wt.% garnet. Melt production ranges from 5% to 23% with an average of 14%. It is limited by the amount of H2O that must be in the melt at the conditions of melting, relative to the amount that is in muscovite in the source rocks. Plagioclase-rich metagraywackes contain little to no muscovite, thus MM cannot occur in them.
Although BM is continuous over a wide temperature range, for the purposes of modelling melting at 975°C and 10kbar was chosen. The temperature is near the terminal stability of biotite, thus the calculations give near-maximum melt production. At this temperature, the mineralogy of the model residues from both metapelites and metagraywackes is dominated by garnet. The potential melt production in the metapelites ranges from 0% to 58% with an average of 32%. It is limited by the availability of plagioclase in the source rocks. Potential melt production in the metagraywackes ranges from 9% to 37% with an average of 23%. At the chosen conditions of melting, melt production is limited by the available K in biotite, although at lower temperatures, the available H2O limits melt production. The total potential melt production (MM + BM) in the metapelites is higher because they have on average a low normative An/Ab ratio (0.14) that approaches the ratio in the leucogranites (0.04). The paragonite component in muscovite significantly contributes to the low ratio in the metapelites. The higher ration (0.27) in the metagraywackes is defined by the feldspar composition.
Using the calculated melt fractions and residue mineralogies, we modelled the concentrations of Rb, Sr and Ba in the melts, as these elements are important indicators of melt-generating processes. The results indicate that both Sr and Ba are likely to be heterogeneous in extracted melt batches and will be depleted in partial melts relative to their pelitic sources, irrespective of whether the melting is fluid-absent or fluid-present.