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Convergent margin tectonic settings involving accretion of large turbidite fans represent important sites of growth and regeneration of continental crust. The newly accreted continental crust consists of an upper crustal layer of recycled crustal detritus (turbidites) underlain by a lower crustal layer of tectonically imbricated oceanic crust, and/or rifted and thinned continental crust, along with underplated magmatic materials; the new lower crust represents additions to continental crustal volume differentiated from the mantle. This two-tiered crust is of average continental crustal thickness and is isostatically balanced near sea level, resulting in remarkable stability. The Paleozoic Tasman orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypal example of this style of orogeny, representing continental growth rates of cubic kilometers per year of material that does not return to the mantle by oceanic plate-tectonic recycling. The Neoproterozoic Pan-African Damara orogen of SW Africa is a similar orogen, whereas the Mesozoic Rangitatan orogen or Rakaia wedge of New Zealand illustrates the transition of the convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more recognizable “ring of fire”-type orogen. These orogens illustrate continental growth from the shortening of deep marine successions and their oceanic crustal basement involving subduction-accretion. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of monotonous turbidites and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism reflect the crustal thickening phase, whereas the posttectonic granitoids and surficial volcanic deposits give the timing of cratonization. The turbidites represent fertile sources for crustal melting and are the main sources for the S-type granites.

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